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Review

Arrhythmic Mitral Valve Prolapse Syndrome and Ventricular Arrhythmias: A Comprehensive Review and the Role of Catheter Ablation

by
Ehsan Mahmoodi
1,2 and
Haris M. Haqqani
1,2,*
1
Department of Cardiology, The Prince Charles Hospital, Brisbane, QLD 4032, Australia
2
Faculty of Medicine, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2024, 11(7), 218; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd11070218
Submission received: 9 June 2024 / Revised: 2 July 2024 / Accepted: 6 July 2024 / Published: 10 July 2024

Abstract

Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) affects 2–3% of the general population, and despite its benign prognosis overall, it is associated with sudden death in a small subset of patients. The term “arrhythmic MVP syndrome” (AMVPS) refers to the presence of frequent or complex ventricular arrhythmias, commonly reported in female patients with a stereotypical phenotype including bileaflet myxomatous disease, ECG repolarisation abnormalities in inferior leads, mitral annular disjunction, and significant fibrosis in the inferolateral LV and papillary muscles. Modern imaging technologies have led to the identification of new risk factors that have been implemented in recent risk stratification guidelines; however, screening for patients with MVP who are at risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) remains challenging. In addition, there is a limited amount of data on the outcomes of different treatment approaches in AMVP and no specific indication for targeted or disease-modifying therapies within current guidelines. Potential arrhythmic substrates in patients with AMVP syndrome have been the subject of interest in previous studies, with areas consisting of fibrosis at the papillary muscle level and the Purkinje system. Premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) originating from these areas have been shown to play an important role as triggers for ventricular fibrillation and SCD in patients with AMVP. Catheter ablation has emerged as a potential treatment modality in patients with MVP and ventricular arrhythmias (VAs), targeting arrhythmic substrates and triggering PVC foci. The aim of this review is to explore the role of catheter ablation in treating patients with AMVP.
Keywords: ventricular arrhythmias; mitral valve prolapse; sudden cardiac death; catheter ablation ventricular arrhythmias; mitral valve prolapse; sudden cardiac death; catheter ablation

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MDPI and ACS Style

Mahmoodi, E.; Haqqani, H.M. Arrhythmic Mitral Valve Prolapse Syndrome and Ventricular Arrhythmias: A Comprehensive Review and the Role of Catheter Ablation. J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2024, 11, 218. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd11070218

AMA Style

Mahmoodi E, Haqqani HM. Arrhythmic Mitral Valve Prolapse Syndrome and Ventricular Arrhythmias: A Comprehensive Review and the Role of Catheter Ablation. Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease. 2024; 11(7):218. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd11070218

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mahmoodi, Ehsan, and Haris M. Haqqani. 2024. "Arrhythmic Mitral Valve Prolapse Syndrome and Ventricular Arrhythmias: A Comprehensive Review and the Role of Catheter Ablation" Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease 11, no. 7: 218. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd11070218

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