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Vet. Sci. 2017, 4(1), 9;

Exercise-Induced Cardiac Remodeling: Lessons from Humans, Horses, and Dogs

Cardiff Centre for Exercise and Health, Cardiff Metropolitan University, Cardiff CF23 6XD, UK
Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne TN1 8ST, UK
Water Research Group, North-West University, Potchefstroom 2520, South Africa
Heart Vets, Porthcawl, Wales CF36 5LD, UK
Specialist equine Cardiology Services, Moulton, Suffolk CB8 8SD, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Sonja Fonfara and Lynne O’Sullivan
Received: 25 November 2016 / Revised: 20 January 2017 / Accepted: 23 January 2017 / Published: 12 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Comparison of Cardiovascular Systems and Diseases Across Species)
Full-Text   |   PDF [3020 KB, uploaded 12 February 2017]   |  


Physical activity is dependent upon the cardiovascular system adequately delivering blood to meet the metabolic and thermoregulatory demands of exercise. Animals who regularly exercise therefore require a well-adapted heart to support this delivery. The purpose of this review is to examine cardiac structure, and the potential for exercise-induced cardiac remodeling, in animals that regularly engage in strenuous activity. Specifically, we draw upon the literature that has studied the “athlete’s heart” in humans, horses, and dogs, to enable the reader to compare and contrast cardiac remodeling in these three athletic species. The available literature provides compelling evidence for exercise-induced cardiac remodeling in all three species. However, more work is required to understand the influence of species/breed specific genetics and exercise-related hemodynamics, in order to fully understand the impact of exercise on cardiac structure. View Full-Text
Keywords: echocardiography; exercise physiology; cardiac remodelling echocardiography; exercise physiology; cardiac remodelling

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Shave, R.; Howatson, G.; Dickson, D.; Young, L. Exercise-Induced Cardiac Remodeling: Lessons from Humans, Horses, and Dogs. Vet. Sci. 2017, 4, 9.

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