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Beverages, Volume 1, Issue 2 (June 2015) – 7 articles , Pages 34-126

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551 KiB  
Review
Cardiovascular Complications of Energy Drinks
by John P. Higgins, Santi Yarlagadda and Benjamin Yang
Beverages 2015, 1(2), 104-126; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages1020104 - 19 Jun 2015
Cited by 35 | Viewed by 34356
Abstract
Energy drinks (EDs) are gaining popularity every year with a broad consumer base including athletes, amateur competitors, and even those experiencing work-related fatigue. Evidence indicates that a significant number of individuals who consume EDs experience resultant morbidity and/or mortality, with a preponderance of [...] Read more.
Energy drinks (EDs) are gaining popularity every year with a broad consumer base including athletes, amateur competitors, and even those experiencing work-related fatigue. Evidence indicates that a significant number of individuals who consume EDs experience resultant morbidity and/or mortality, with a preponderance of cases involving teenagers and young adults. Adverse effects of ED consumption may occur in healthy persons, however certain individuals may be particularly susceptible to complications. At-risk populations include those of young age, the caffeine-naïve, or caffeine-sensitive, pregnant women, competitive athletes, and those with underlying cardiovascular disease. This paper summarizes the cardiovascular complications associated with ED use and provides suggestions on consumption of these drinks in various populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Drinks)
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154 KiB  
Review
Challenges for the Production of Probiotic Fruit Juices
by Marianne Perricone, Antonio Bevilacqua, Clelia Altieri, Milena Sinigaglia and Maria Rosaria Corbo
Beverages 2015, 1(2), 95-103; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages1020095 - 26 May 2015
Cited by 136 | Viewed by 16751
Abstract
Fruit juices represent a promising carrier for probiotic bacteria; however, there are some drawbacks and limits that could preclude their production at the industrial level, namely the survival of probiotics throughout storage, and the possible impact of bacteria on the sensory traits and [...] Read more.
Fruit juices represent a promising carrier for probiotic bacteria; however, there are some drawbacks and limits that could preclude their production at the industrial level, namely the survival of probiotics throughout storage, and the possible impact of bacteria on the sensory traits and overall acceptance. This review addresses the inoculation of probiotics in juices; with a special focus on the possibilities and challenges for future; i.e., why probiotics in juices and which kind of microorganisms; some drawbacks and how to improve the viability of probiotics; and some ideas on the sensory impact. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fruit Beverages: Nutritional Composition and Health Benefits)
212 KiB  
Article
Blood Orange Anthocyanins in Fruit Beverages: How the Commercial Shelf Life Reflects the Quality Parameter
by Monica Scordino, Leonardo Sabatino, Francesco Lazzaro, Marco Antonio Borzì, Maria Gargano, Pasqualino Traulo and Giacomo Gagliano
Beverages 2015, 1(2), 82-94; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages1020082 - 20 May 2015
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 6976
Abstract
Pigmented oranges are a high value typical product, used for the production of healthy juice-based drinks due to the peculiar presence of anthocyanins as dietary antioxidants. A qualitative HPLC/PDA/MS analytical method for verifying presence/absence of blood orange anthocyanins was validated in accordance with [...] Read more.
Pigmented oranges are a high value typical product, used for the production of healthy juice-based drinks due to the peculiar presence of anthocyanins as dietary antioxidants. A qualitative HPLC/PDA/MS analytical method for verifying presence/absence of blood orange anthocyanins was validated in accordance with Eurachem guide in terms of accordance (100%), specificity/selectivity, repeatability of retention time (CV < 0.5%), limit of detection (0.36 mg/L) and limit of decision (0.41 mg/L). Fifty commercial red orange juice beverages were collected on the market and analyzed to assess the occurrence of blood orange anthocyanins. The results showed that only 60% of analyzed products have a minimum content of anthocyanins of blood orange, guaranteeing the specifications of the product they publicize and sell until the expiration date. Therefore, it is possible to envisage a gradual degradation of the specific parameter (anthocyanins) or willful misconduct of producers (non-use of blood orange juice). In both cases, the consumer buys a product with high added value without such value being guaranteed. This information will be useful to revise the expiration date of these products, the percentage of blood orange juice used in the preparation and/or the storage conditions of the products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fruit Beverages: Nutritional Composition and Health Benefits)
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296 KiB  
Article
Determination of Citrus Limonoid Glucosides by High Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Post-Column Reaction with Ehrlich’s Reagent
by Andrew P. Breksa III, Darwin E. King and Ana M. Vilches
Beverages 2015, 1(2), 70-81; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages1020070 - 12 May 2015
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 6334
Abstract
A method for the identification and quantification of citrus limonoid glucosides in juices, based upon high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation coupled to post-column reaction with Ehrlich’s reagent, has been developed. This method utilizes a phenyl stationary phase and an isocratic mobile phase. [...] Read more.
A method for the identification and quantification of citrus limonoid glucosides in juices, based upon high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation coupled to post-column reaction with Ehrlich’s reagent, has been developed. This method utilizes a phenyl stationary phase and an isocratic mobile phase. Limit of detection for the method was determined to be 50 ng of limonin glucoside. Limonin glucoside and the other limonoid glucosides tested responded equivalently to the post-column reaction with Ehrlich’s reagent suggesting that limonin glucoside may be used as a surrogate for the quantification of other limonoid glucosides, including nomilin, deacetyl nomilin, nomilinic acid, deacetyl nomilinic acid, and obacunone glucosides. For most juice samples, no sample treatment is required to determine limonin glucoside content. Concentration by solid phase extraction is recommended for juices with low levels of limonin glucoside and to facilitate the detection and quantification of other limonoid glucosides present at low concentrations. With the exception of blood oranges, the method was successfully applied to the analysis of juices from a variety of citrus varieties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fruit Beverages: Nutritional Composition and Health Benefits)
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538 KiB  
Article
Facility Location Problem of Beverage Distribution Considering Time Window and Land Use Plan Using GIS
by EunSu Lee, Alan D. Dybing and Sumadhur Shakya
Beverages 2015, 1(2), 55-69; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages1020055 - 20 Apr 2015
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 6129
Abstract
As the boundaries and population of urban areas expand, beverage distributors may seek to expand the capacity in their distribution centers. As a result, they may need to add new locations or increase the utilization of their existing center. This paper investigates the [...] Read more.
As the boundaries and population of urban areas expand, beverage distributors may seek to expand the capacity in their distribution centers. As a result, they may need to add new locations or increase the utilization of their existing center. This paper investigates the facility location problem through network space, considering traversable truck roads, thereby providing a strategic decision for identifying a depot location in consideration of vehicle routings from a real application. For the analysis, a geospatial tool, which is embedded in the commercial software ArcMap®, was used for routing and calibrating the model. Ten candidates from commercial and industrial zones in the cities of Fargo, West Fargo, and Moorhead were considered for future distribution centers. The candidate locations were analyzed to determine which site minimizes the total transportation costs and travel miles in consideration of time window, vehicle capacity, heterogeneous vehicle types, land use plan, and hours-of-service. Most attractive candidates are close to the intersections of major highways. From the analysis, the study recommends locating a distribution center at three alternatives based on the average ranking method. This study can be used by distributors as they consider new locations and extra depots to support strategic planning to deal with mid-term and long-term growth of demand in beverage markets. This study provides a ready-to-use example of how to adopt state-of-the-art spatial technology and operations research using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), and bring it to state-of-practice. Full article
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447 KiB  
Communication
Determination of Osmolality in Beer to Validate Claims of Isotonicity
by Juan L. Lozano Tarancon and Dirk W. Lachenmeier
Beverages 2015, 1(2), 45-54; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages1020045 - 16 Apr 2015
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 8325
Abstract
Alcohol-free beer is increasingly marketed with the claim “isotonic”. According to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), isotonic beverages should have an osmolality in a range of 270–330 mOsmol/kg. A method to determine osmolality in beer using an automatic cryoscope was applied and [...] Read more.
Alcohol-free beer is increasingly marketed with the claim “isotonic”. According to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), isotonic beverages should have an osmolality in a range of 270–330 mOsmol/kg. A method to determine osmolality in beer using an automatic cryoscope was applied and validated in this study. Isotonic and hypotonic beers can be measured directly, while hypertonic beers have to be diluted into the linear range of the instrument. As proven in several different beer matrices, the assay was linear with an average correlation coefficient of 0.998. The limits of detection and quantitation were 2 and 10 mOsmol/kg, so that the sensitivity of the method was judged sufficient to control the isotonic range. The measurement uncertainty expressed as coefficient of variation was less than 1% interday. The applicability of the method was proven by measurement of 86 beer samples. Our study has shown that the cryoscopic method is fit for the purpose to validate claims of isotonicity in food control. Full article
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336 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Fresh and Commercial Pomegranate Juices from Mollar de Elche Cultivar Grown under Conventional or Organic Farming Practices
by Nallely Nuncio-Jáuregui, Marina Cano-Lamadrid, Francisca Hernández, Ángel A. Carbonell-Barrachina and Ángel Calín-Sánchez
Beverages 2015, 1(2), 34-44; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages1020034 - 30 Mar 2015
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 6641
Abstract
Pomegranate juice has gained a high reputation for its health properties and consequently is now a highly demanded product. However, there is an interest in knowing if there are differences between conventional and organic agricultural practices. For that reason, total phenolic content, antioxidant [...] Read more.
Pomegranate juice has gained a high reputation for its health properties and consequently is now a highly demanded product. However, there is an interest in knowing if there are differences between conventional and organic agricultural practices. For that reason, total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, punicalagin isomers and sensory analysis of pomegranate juices from Mollar de Elche cultivar were studied. A comparison between fresh and commercial pomegranate juice obtained by conventional and organic agricultural practices was conducted. The total phenolic content values ranged from 2285 to 2457 mg GAE L−1; however, there was no significant difference among conventional and organic juices. The antioxidant capacity evaluated by DPPH and ABTS methods showed significant differences (p < 0.05) among conventional and organic juices. The antioxidant capacity values ranged from 17.7 to 35.9 mmol Trolox L−1 for DPPH and from 5.09 to 27.9 mmol Trolox L-1 for ABTS. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed among conventional and organic juices in punicalagin isomer, with the highest value found in conventional fresh pomegranate juice (0.48 g L−1). Descriptive sensory analysis showed that fresh pomegranate, fresh rind, earthy, vegetal, bitter, and astringent notes were higher in conventional fresh pomegranate juice. Cooked and mushroom notes predominated in conventional commercial pomegranate juice; while the organic juice was characterized by fresh pomegranate, fresh rind, earthy and sweet notes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fruit Beverages: Nutritional Composition and Health Benefits)
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