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Medicines, Volume 9, Issue 8 (August 2022) – 4 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Every three seconds, someone in the world develops Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), which is the most common form of dementia. With over 50 million AD patients worldwide, AD’s progressive memory loss often occurs over a 4–5-year period. There is currently no effective treatment to stop, delay, or prevent AD. The paper by Arendash and colleagues in this volume presents evidence that a new bioengineering technology—Transcranial Electromagnetic Treatment (TEMT)—can stop the cognitive decline of AD for at least 2½ years through daily in-home treatments by caregivers. The cover figure shows a computer simulation of electric fields in the human head with one of the eight TEMT emitters (above the left ear) being ON. Rapid sequential emitter activation provides full brain treatment. View this paper
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Case Report
Ashi Scalp Acupuncture in the Treatment of Secondary Trigeminal Neuralgia Induced by Multiple Sclerosis: A Case Report
Medicines 2022, 9(8), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines9080044 - 12 Aug 2022
Viewed by 498
Abstract
Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune, chronic, inflammatory, demyelinating, and axonal degeneration disease of the central nervous system. Trigeminal neuralgia (TN), a neuropathic facial paroxysmal pain, is prevalent among MS patients. Because of the inadequacy of the comprehension of MS-related TN [...] Read more.
Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune, chronic, inflammatory, demyelinating, and axonal degeneration disease of the central nervous system. Trigeminal neuralgia (TN), a neuropathic facial paroxysmal pain, is prevalent among MS patients. Because of the inadequacy of the comprehension of MS-related TN pathophysiological mechanisms, TN remains arduous in its treatment approaches. Acupuncture as a non-pharmacological therapy could be a promising complementary therapy for the treatment of TN. MS gradual neural damage might affect the muscles’ function. This can lead to acute or paroxysmal pain in the form of spasms that might progress to formation of myofascial trigger points also known in traditional Chinese medicine as Ashi points (AP). Localising these AP through palpation and pain sensation feedback in patients with MS is an indicator of disease progression. Pathologically, these points reveal the disharmony of soft tissue and internal organs. Methods: This case report examined the pain relief outcome with Ashi scalp acupuncture (ASA) in a secondary TN patient who was unsuccessfully treated multiple times with body acupuncture. The main outline measure was to quantify pain intensity using a numerical rating scale (NRS) before and after each acupuncture therapy. The patient was treated on the scalp for a total of eight times, twice a week over four weeks. Results: A reduction in secondary TN pain intensity was observed after each session. On average, the patient expressed severe pain (NRS: 8.0 ± 2.20) before ASA treatment, which significantly decreased after therapy to mild pain (NRS: 2.0 ± 1.64). Conclusions: Significant improvements in pain intensity reduction after each acupuncture treatment without any adverse effects were observed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Neurology and Neurologic Diseases)
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Review
Rare Heterogeneous Adverse Events Associated with mRNA-Based COVID-19 Vaccines: A Systematic Review
Medicines 2022, 9(8), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines9080043 - 11 Aug 2022
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Abstract
Background: Since the successful development, approval, and administration of vaccines against SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, there have been reports in the published literature, passive surveillance systems, and other pharmacovigilance platforms of a broad spectrum of adverse events following COVID-19 vaccination. A [...] Read more.
Background: Since the successful development, approval, and administration of vaccines against SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, there have been reports in the published literature, passive surveillance systems, and other pharmacovigilance platforms of a broad spectrum of adverse events following COVID-19 vaccination. A comprehensive review of the more serious adverse events associated with the Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna mRNA vaccines is warranted, given the massive number of vaccine doses administered worldwide and the novel mechanism of action of these mRNA vaccines in the healthcare industry. Methods: A systematic review of the literature was conducted to identify relevant studies that have reported mRNA COVID-19 vaccine-related adverse events. Results: Serious and severe adverse events following mRNA COVID-19 vaccinations are rare. While a definitive causal relationship was not established in most cases, important adverse events associated with post-vaccination included rare and non-fatal myocarditis and pericarditis in younger vaccine recipients, thrombocytopenia, neurological effects such as seizures and orofacial events, skin reactions, and allergic hypersensitivities. Conclusions: As a relatively new set of vaccines already administered to billions of people, COVID-19 mRNA-based vaccines are generally safe and efficacious. Further studies on long-term adverse events and other unpredictable reactions in close proximity to mRNA vaccination are required. Full article
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Article
Transcranial Electromagnetic Treatment Stops Alzheimer’s Disease Cognitive Decline over a 2½-Year Period: A Pilot Study
Medicines 2022, 9(8), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines9080042 - 03 Aug 2022
Viewed by 527
Abstract
Background: There is currently no therapeutic that can stop or reverse the progressive memory impairment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, we recently published that 2 months of daily, in-home transcranial electromagnetic treatment (TEMT) reversed the cognitive impairment in eight mild/moderate AD subjects. These [...] Read more.
Background: There is currently no therapeutic that can stop or reverse the progressive memory impairment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, we recently published that 2 months of daily, in-home transcranial electromagnetic treatment (TEMT) reversed the cognitive impairment in eight mild/moderate AD subjects. These cognitive enhancements were accompanied by predicted changes in AD markers within both the blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Methods: In view of these encouraging findings, the initial clinical study was extended twice to encompass a period of 2½ years. The present study reports on the resulting long-term safety, cognitive assessments, and AD marker evaluations from the five subjects who received long-term treatment. Results: TEMT administration was completely safe over the 2½-year period, with no deleterious side effects. In six cognitive/functional tasks (including the ADAS-cog13, Rey AVLT, MMSE, and ADL), no decline in any measure occurred over this 2½-year period. Long-term TEMT induced reductions in the CSF levels of C-reactive protein, p-tau217, Aβ1-40, and Aβ1-42 while modulating CSF oligomeric Aβ levels. In the plasma, long-term TEMT modulated/rebalanced levels of both p-tau217 and total tau. Conclusions: Although only a limited number of AD patients were involved in this study, the results suggest that TEMT can stop the cognitive decline of AD over a period of at least 2½ years and can do so with no safety issues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Neurology and Neurologic Diseases)
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Review
Clinical Perspectives and Management of Edema in Chronic Venous Disease—What about Ruscus?
Medicines 2022, 9(8), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines9080041 - 25 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 432
Abstract
Background: Edema is highly prevalent in patients with cardiovascular disease and is associated with various underlying pathologic conditions, making it challenging for physicians to diagnose and manage. Methods: We report on presentations from a virtual symposium at the Annual Meeting of the European [...] Read more.
Background: Edema is highly prevalent in patients with cardiovascular disease and is associated with various underlying pathologic conditions, making it challenging for physicians to diagnose and manage. Methods: We report on presentations from a virtual symposium at the Annual Meeting of the European Venous Forum (25 June 2021), which examined edema classification within clinical practice, provided guidance on making differential diagnoses and reviewed evidence for the use of the treatment combination of Ruscus extract, hesperidin methyl chalcone and vitamin C. Results: The understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying fluid build-up in chronic venous disease (CVD) is limited. Despite amendments to the classic Starling Principle, discrepancies exist between the theories proposed and real-world evidence. Given the varied disease presentations seen in edema patients, thorough clinical examinations are recommended in order to make a differential diagnosis. The recent CEAP classification update states that edema should be considered a sign of CVD. The combination of Ruscus extract, hesperidin methyl chalcone and vitamin C improves venous tone and lymph contractility and reduces macromolecule permeability and inflammation. Conclusions: Data from randomized controlled trials support guideline recommendations for the use of Ruscus extract, hesperidin methyl chalcone and vitamin C to relieve major CVD-related symptoms and edema. Full article
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