C-C chemoattractant cytokine (chemokine) receptor 6 (CCR6) and its exclusive binding molecule CCL20 is an extremely important chemokine receptor-ligand pair which controls cell migration and immune induction during inflammatory disease. Not many scientific studies have been undertaken to study its immune mechanisms in detail, but its unique contribution to steady state cell chemotaxis in upholding immune tolerance and regulating immune homeostasis during inflammation is evident in multiple systems in the human body, including skin, liver, lung, kidney, brain, eye, joints, gonads and the gut. The role of CCR6 is constitutively expressed as a series of much debilitating severe inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and cancer metastasis. CD4+
T cells, the central organizers of adaptive immunity, are stringently mobilized by the CCR6/CCL20 axis also induced by cytokines and a host of other factors in a carefully executed immune modulation scenario, to bring about a delicate balance between inflammation inducing TH
17 cells and regulatory Treg
cells. Although the exact immune regulatory role is not elucidated as yet, the CCR6/CCL20 axis is implicated as a front runner which determines the polarization of TH
17 and regulatory Treg
cells, upon which depends the resolution or progression of many debilitating disorders. This review therefore aims at emphasizing the pleiotropic significance of the chemokines CCR6 and CCL20 in immunologic function in multiple organ systems, thereby hoping to accentuate its value in future therapeutic modalities.
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