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Medicines, Volume 11, Issue 2 (February 2024) – 2 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Medicines (ISSN 2305-6320) is an international, peer-reviewed, and open access journal aimed at combining all areas of medical disciplines and subspecialties in one platform. It mainly publishes, but is not limited to, original research papers, case reports, reviews, systematic reviews, brief reports, concepts and opinions on all aspects of basic, clinical, and translational research in relation to human health. The journal will accept manuscripts on medical concepts that include evidence-based medicine and/or alternative medicine. Our aim is to encourage scientists to publish their experimental and theoretical results in as much detail as possible. Full details must be provided when publishing an experiment so that the results can be reproduced.
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15 pages, 539 KiB  
Review
Can a Low-Phosphate Diet for Chronic Kidney Disease Treat Cancer? An Interdisciplinary Literature Review
by Ronald B. Brown and Philip Bigelow
Medicines 2024, 11(2), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines11020005 - 30 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1613
Abstract
Background: Cancer therapeutics have a low success rate in clinical trials. An interdisciplinary approach is needed to translate basic, clinical, and remote fields of research knowledge into novel cancer treatments. Recent research has identified high dietary phosphate intake as a risk factor associated [...] Read more.
Background: Cancer therapeutics have a low success rate in clinical trials. An interdisciplinary approach is needed to translate basic, clinical, and remote fields of research knowledge into novel cancer treatments. Recent research has identified high dietary phosphate intake as a risk factor associated with cancer incidence. A model of tumor dynamics predicted that reducing phosphate levels sequestered in the tumor microenvironment could substantially reduce tumor size. Coincidently, a low-phosphate diet is already in use to help patients with chronic kidney disease manage high serum phosphate levels. Methods: A grounded-theory literature-review method was used to synthesize interdisciplinary findings from the basic and clinical sciences, including oncology, nephrology, nutritional epidemiology, and dietetic research on cancer. Results: Findings of tumor remission associated with fasting and a ketogenic diet, which lower intake of dietary phosphate, support the hypothesis that a low-phosphate diet will reduce levels of phosphate sequestered in the tumor microenvironment and reduce tumor size. Additionally, long-term effects of a low-phosphate diet may reverse dysregulated phosphate metabolism associated with tumorigenesis and prevent cancer recurrence. Conclusions: Evidence in this article provides the rationale to test a low-phosphate diet as a dietary intervention to reduce tumor size and lower risk of cancer recurrence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cancer Biology and Anticancer Therapeutics)
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10 pages, 280 KiB  
Article
A Multi-Modality Intervention Improves Obesity Bias among Medical Students
by Stephanie Trofymenko, Randa Kutob and Amit Algotar
Medicines 2024, 11(2), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines11020004 - 28 Jan 2024
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Abstract
Background: Obesity is linked to chronic diseases in adults and children. Its prevalence continues to grow in the United States, necessitating the need for healthcare provider training and presenting an opportunity for the education of future medical providers. Despite this need, effectively [...] Read more.
Background: Obesity is linked to chronic diseases in adults and children. Its prevalence continues to grow in the United States, necessitating the need for healthcare provider training and presenting an opportunity for the education of future medical providers. Despite this need, effectively implementing obesity education into medical school curricula has been challenging. Anti-obesity bias amongst healthcare providers and trainees represents a significant obstacle to the care of patients with obesity. Obesity bias may affect up to 1/3 of medical students. Methods: This study describes the development and preliminary testing of a brief, 2.5 h multi-modality teaching intervention consisting of online, interactive, and independent learning modules for first-year medical students and a patient panel focused on obesity, obesity bias, and motivational interviewing. The participants took Crandall’s anti-fat attitude (AFA) questionnaire before and after an online independent learning module on motivational interviewing and obesity bias. The AFA consists of three subscales (“dislike”, “fear of fat”, and “willpower”). Individual responses were measured using a nine-point Likert-type response format (0 = very strongly disagree; 9 = very strongly agree). An average composite score was calculated for each subscale. Results: Data were analyzed from 103 first-year medical students enrolled at a college of medicine in the southwestern United States in 2022. The AFA mean composite scores decreased significantly, indicating a decrease in explicit anti-obesity attitude bias after completing the online module. This decrease was present in all three domains of fear (4.63 vs. 3.72, p < 0.001), dislike (1.25 vs. 0.88, p < 0.001) and willpower (3.23 vs. 2.31, p < 0.001). Conclusions: Relatively brief educational interventions can positively impact students’ anti-obesity attitudes. Full article
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