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Article

Comparative Analysis of Neurotoxicity of Six Phthalates in Zebrafish Embryos

by 1,†, 2,† and 1,2,*
1
Department of Environmental Energy Engineering, Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Seoul 01811, Korea
2
Department of Environmental Engineering, Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Seoul 01811, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally.
Received: 19 November 2020 / Revised: 4 January 2021 / Accepted: 5 January 2021 / Published: 7 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Zebrafish Model for Environmental Health Sciences Research)
The effects and underlying mechanisms of phthalates on neurotoxicity remain unclear as compared with the potentials of these substances as endocrine disruptors. The locomotor activities of zebrafish embryos were investigated upon exposure to six phthalates: dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBzP), di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP), and diisononyl phthalate (DiNP). Moreover, changes in fluorescence intensity in the green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic (Tg) lines Tg(HuC:eGFP), Tg(sox10:eGFP), and Tg(mbp:GFP) were measured after exposure to six phthalates, and changes in the expression profiles of genes involved in the cholinergic (ache) and dopaminergic systems (dat, th, and drd1b) were assessed. Exposure to BBzP, DEHP, and DiNP affected larval behaviors, whereas exposure to DMP, DEP, and DnOP revealed no alterations. A reduced expression of Tg(HuC:eGFP) was observed upon exposure to BBzP, DEHP, and DiNP. The expression of Tg(sox10:eGFP) and Tg(mbp:GFP) was reduced only in response to BBzP and DiNP, respectively. Further, exposure to DiNP upregulated ache and drd1b. The upregulation of ache and downregulation of drd1b was observed in DEHP-exposed groups. Exposure to BBzP suppressed th expression. These observations indicate that exposure to phthalates impaired embryogenesis of the neurological system and neurochemicals in zebrafish embryos, although the detailed mechanisms varied among the individual phthalates. Further mechanistic studies are needed to better understand the causality between phthalate exposure and neurotoxicity. View Full-Text
Keywords: neurotoxicity; phthalates; zebrafish; mechanism; neurochemical neurotoxicity; phthalates; zebrafish; mechanism; neurochemical
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tran, C.M.; Do, T.N.; Kim, K.-T. Comparative Analysis of Neurotoxicity of Six Phthalates in Zebrafish Embryos. Toxics 2021, 9, 5. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics9010005

AMA Style

Tran CM, Do TN, Kim K-T. Comparative Analysis of Neurotoxicity of Six Phthalates in Zebrafish Embryos. Toxics. 2021; 9(1):5. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics9010005

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tran, Cong M., Trinh N. Do, and Ki-Tae Kim. 2021. "Comparative Analysis of Neurotoxicity of Six Phthalates in Zebrafish Embryos" Toxics 9, no. 1: 5. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics9010005

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