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Open AccessArticle

Hydrophobic Sand Is a Non-Toxic Method of Urine Collection, Appropriate for Urinary Metal Analysis in the Rat

Internal Contamination and Metal Toxicity Program, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University, Bethesda, MD 20889, USA
Office of Food Additive Safety (OFAS), CFSAN/FDA/DHHS, College Park, MD 20740, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Antonio J. García-Fernández
Toxics 2017, 5(4), 25;
Received: 18 September 2017 / Revised: 3 October 2017 / Accepted: 8 October 2017 / Published: 11 October 2017
Hydrophobic sand is a relatively new method of urine collection in the rodent, comparable to the established method using a metabolic cage. Urine samples are often used in rodent research, especially for biomarkers of health changes after internal contamination from embedded metals, such as in a model of a military shrapnel wound. However, little research has been done on the potential interference of hydrophobic sand with urine metal concentrations either by contamination from the sand particulate, or adsorption of metals from the urine. We compare urine collected from rats using the metabolic cage method and the hydrophobic sand method for differences in metal concentration of common urinary metals, and examine physical properties of the sand material for potential sources of contamination. We found minimal risk of internal contamination of the rat by hydrophobic sand, and no interference of the sand with several common metals of interest (cobalt, strontium, copper, and manganese), although we advise caution in studies of aluminum in urine. View Full-Text
Keywords: urine; metal contamination; internal contamination; rodent urine; metal contamination; internal contamination; rodent
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Hoffman, J.F.; Vergara, V.B.; Mog, S.R.; Kalinich, J.F. Hydrophobic Sand Is a Non-Toxic Method of Urine Collection, Appropriate for Urinary Metal Analysis in the Rat. Toxics 2017, 5, 25.

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