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Article

Spatial Fingerprinting: Horizontal Fusion of Multi-Dimensional Bio-Tracers as Solution to Global Food Provenance Problems

Department of Integrative Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Theodoros Varzakas
Foods 2021, 10(4), 717; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10040717
Received: 3 March 2021 / Revised: 15 March 2021 / Accepted: 24 March 2021 / Published: 28 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Detection of Food Fraud Using Analytical Methods)
Building the capacity of efficiently determining the provenance of food products represents a crucial step towards the sustainability of the global food system. Despite species specific empirical examples of multi-tracer approaches to provenance, the precise benefit and efficacy of multi-tracers remains poorly understood. Here we show why, and when, data fusion of bio-tracers is an extremely powerful technique for geographical provenance discrimination. Specifically, we show using extensive simulations how, and under what conditions, geographical relationships between bio-tracers (e.g., spatial covariance) can act like a spatial fingerprint, in many naturally occurring applications likely allowing rapid identification with limited data. To highlight the theory, we outline several statistic methodologies, including artificial intelligence, and apply these methodologies as a proof of concept to a limited data set of 90 individuals of highly mobile Sockeye salmon that originate from 3 different areas. Using 17 measured bio-tracers, we demonstrate that increasing combined bio-tracers results in stronger discriminatory power. We argue such applications likely even work for such highly mobile and critical fisheries as tuna. View Full-Text
Keywords: food provenance; species origin; bio-tracers; data fusion; supervised learning food provenance; species origin; bio-tracers; data fusion; supervised learning
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cazelles, K.; Zemlak, T.S.; Gutgesell, M.; Myles-Gonzalez, E.; Hanner, R.; Shear McCann, K. Spatial Fingerprinting: Horizontal Fusion of Multi-Dimensional Bio-Tracers as Solution to Global Food Provenance Problems. Foods 2021, 10, 717. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10040717

AMA Style

Cazelles K, Zemlak TS, Gutgesell M, Myles-Gonzalez E, Hanner R, Shear McCann K. Spatial Fingerprinting: Horizontal Fusion of Multi-Dimensional Bio-Tracers as Solution to Global Food Provenance Problems. Foods. 2021; 10(4):717. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10040717

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cazelles, Kevin, Tyler Stephen Zemlak, Marie Gutgesell, Emelia Myles-Gonzalez, Robert Hanner, and Kevin Shear McCann. 2021. "Spatial Fingerprinting: Horizontal Fusion of Multi-Dimensional Bio-Tracers as Solution to Global Food Provenance Problems" Foods 10, no. 4: 717. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10040717

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