An efficient overlapping multi-domain spectral method is used in the analysis of conjugate problems of heat conduction in solid walls coupled with laminar magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) free convective boundary layer flow of copper (Cu) water and silver (Ag) water nanofluids over vertical and horizontal flat plates. The combined effects of heat generation and thermal radiation on the flow has been analyzed by imposing a magnetic field along the direction of the flow to control the motion of electrically conducting fluid in nanoscale systems. We have assumed that the nanoparticle volume fraction at the wall may be actively controlled. The dimensionless flow equations are solved numerically using an overlapping multi-domain bivariate spectral quasilinearisation method. The effects of relevant parameters on the fluid properties are shown graphically and discussed in detail. Furthermore, the variations of the skin friction coefficient, surface temperature and the rate of heat transfer are shown in graphs and tables. The findings show that the surface temperature is enhanced due to the presence of nanoparticles in the base fluid and the inclusion of the thermal radiation, heat generation and transverse magnetic field in the system. An increase in the nanoparticle volume fraction, heat generation, thermal radiation, and magnetic field parameter enhances the nanofluid velocity and temperature while reducing the heat transfer rate. The results also indicate that the Ag–water nanofluid has higher skin friction and surface temperature than the Cu–water nanofluid, while the opposite behaviour is observed in the case of the rate of heat transfer. The computed numerical results are compared with previously published results and found to be in good agreement.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited