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Article

Solid-Phase Microextraction Arrow for the Sampling of Volatile Organic Compounds in Milk Samples

1
Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
2
Institute of Chemical Technology and Analytics, Vienna University of Technology, Getreidemarkt 9/164, 1060 Vienna, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Separations 2020, 7(4), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations7040075
Received: 15 November 2020 / Revised: 12 December 2020 / Accepted: 16 December 2020 / Published: 18 December 2020
A novel sample preparation method based on the use of the Arrow solid-phase microextraction device was used to extract and preconcentrate volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from milk samples prior to their determination by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The experimental parameters of the solid-phase microextraction (SPME) Arrow method were evaluated in terms of fiber type, sample volume, extraction temperature, extraction time, stirring rate and salt addition. Under the optimum extraction conditions, the SPME Arrow was compared with conventional SPME fibers to evaluate the effectiveness of the SPME Arrow method. Evaluation of the conventional SPME procedure was also performed under optimized conditions, for appropriate method comparison. Due to the larger sorption phase volume of SPME Arrow, a higher sensitivity and reproducibility were observed for the determined chromatographic peaks in comparison with conventional SPME fibers. The use of Carbon wide range (WR) SPME Arrow/polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS) SPME Arrow fibers leads to a compound-dependent improvement of a factor of 4–5x over the classical SPME setup. Moreover, the relative standard deviation (RSD) of the total volatiles for a conventional SPME procedure was 12.5%, while for SPME Arrow it was 6.2%. Finally, the novel method was successfully employed for the analysis of commercially available milk samples. The findings of this study indicate that SPME Arrow can be effectively used for the determination of volatile organic compounds in complex food matrixes. View Full-Text
Keywords: SPME arrow; GC-MS; gas chromatography; milk; volatile compounds SPME arrow; GC-MS; gas chromatography; milk; volatile compounds
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MDPI and ACS Style

Manousi, N.; Rosenberg, E.; Zachariadis, G.A. Solid-Phase Microextraction Arrow for the Sampling of Volatile Organic Compounds in Milk Samples. Separations 2020, 7, 75. https://doi.org/10.3390/separations7040075

AMA Style

Manousi N, Rosenberg E, Zachariadis GA. Solid-Phase Microextraction Arrow for the Sampling of Volatile Organic Compounds in Milk Samples. Separations. 2020; 7(4):75. https://doi.org/10.3390/separations7040075

Chicago/Turabian Style

Manousi, Natalia, Erwin Rosenberg, and George A. Zachariadis. 2020. "Solid-Phase Microextraction Arrow for the Sampling of Volatile Organic Compounds in Milk Samples" Separations 7, no. 4: 75. https://doi.org/10.3390/separations7040075

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