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Article

Extraction of Natural Pigments from Gardenia Jasminoides J.Ellis Fruit Pulp Using CO2-Expanded Liquids and Direct Sonication

1
Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Fukuoka University, 8-19-1 Nanakuma Jonan-ku, Fukuoka 814-0180, Japan
2
Research Institute of Composite Materials, Fukuoka University, 8-19-1, Nanakuma Jonan-ku, Fukuoka 814-0180, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Separations 2021, 8(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations8010001
Received: 4 December 2020 / Revised: 21 December 2020 / Accepted: 21 December 2020 / Published: 24 December 2020
In this work, a carbon dioxide-expanded liquid (CXL) extraction system was used with or without direct sonication for the extraction of highly polar natural pigments (crocin-1 and crocin-2) from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis fruit pulp. The effects of different parameters, including modifiers (ethanol, water, aqueous ethanol), temperature (5–25 °C), pressure (8–14 MPa), and sonication time (0–200 s) on extraction concentrations were examined using the CXL system. Aqueous ethanol (50% or 80%, v/v) was selected for the CXL system as a modifier due to its efficiency. The best conditions for extraction were found at 25 °C and 10 MPa. The CXE 80% extraction system with direct sonication extracted a significantly higher amount of crocin-1 and crocin-2, 13.63 ± 0.5 and 0.51 ± 0.05 μg/mL, respectively, compared to conventional solid–liquid methanol extraction (10.43 ± 0.3 and 0.37 ± 0.02 μg/mL, respectively). Under these conditions, a water-rich phase, an ethanol-rich phase, and a CO2-rich gas phase coexisted in the high-pressure cell in the CXE 80% extraction system, which was vigorously disrupted by the addition of sonication, resulting in a compressed aqueous ethanol phase and an aqueous ethanol-modified CO2-rich phase, and may have a positive influence on extraction. View Full-Text
Keywords: CO2-expanded liquid; crocin; sonication; natural pigments; gardenia fruits CO2-expanded liquid; crocin; sonication; natural pigments; gardenia fruits
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sakai, H.; Ono, K.; Tokunaga, S.; Sharmin, T.; Aida, T.M.; Mishima, K. Extraction of Natural Pigments from Gardenia Jasminoides J.Ellis Fruit Pulp Using CO2-Expanded Liquids and Direct Sonication. Separations 2021, 8, 1. https://doi.org/10.3390/separations8010001

AMA Style

Sakai H, Ono K, Tokunaga S, Sharmin T, Aida TM, Mishima K. Extraction of Natural Pigments from Gardenia Jasminoides J.Ellis Fruit Pulp Using CO2-Expanded Liquids and Direct Sonication. Separations. 2021; 8(1):1. https://doi.org/10.3390/separations8010001

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sakai, Hiroki, Kento Ono, Shinichi Tokunaga, Tanjina Sharmin, Taku M. Aida, and Kenji Mishima. 2021. "Extraction of Natural Pigments from Gardenia Jasminoides J.Ellis Fruit Pulp Using CO2-Expanded Liquids and Direct Sonication" Separations 8, no. 1: 1. https://doi.org/10.3390/separations8010001

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