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Understanding the Operating Mode of Fe0/Fe-Sulfide/H2O Systems for Water Treatment
Open AccessConcept Paper

Designing the Next Generation of Fe0-Based Filters for Decentralized Safe Drinking Water Treatment: A Conceptual Framework

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Angewandte Geologie, Universität Göttingen, Goldschmidtstraße 3, D-37077 Göttingen, Germany
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School of Earth Science and Engineering, Hohai University, Fo Cheng Xi Road 8, Nanjing 211100, China
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Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Douala, Douala B.P. 24157, Cameroon
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Biosystems and Environmental Engineering Research Group, Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Engineering, University of Zimbabwe, Mt. Pleasant, Harare MP167, Zimbabwe
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Department of Sedimentology & Environmental Geology, University of Göttingen, Goldschmidtstraße 3, D-37077 Göttingen, Germany
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Processes 2020, 8(6), 745; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8060745
Received: 25 May 2020 / Revised: 23 June 2020 / Accepted: 23 June 2020 / Published: 26 June 2020
The ambitious United Nations Sustainable Development Goal for 2030 to “leave no one behind” concerning safe drinking water calls for the development of universally applicable and affordable decentralized treatment systems to provide safe drinking water. Published results suggest that well-designed biological sand filters (BSFs) amended with metallic iron (Fe0-BSFs) have the potential to achieve this goal. Fe0-BSFs quantitatively remove pathogens and a myriad of chemical pollutants. The available data were achieved under various operating conditions. A comparison of independent research results is almost impossible, especially because the used Fe0 materials are not characterized for their intrinsic reactivity. This communication summarizes the state-of-the-art knowledge on designing Fe0-BSFs for households and small communities. The results show that significant research progress has been made on Fe0-BSFs. However, well-designed laboratory and field experiments are required to improve the available knowledge in order to develop the next generation of adaptable and scalable designs of Fe0-BSFs in only two years. Tools to alleviate the permeability loss, the preferential flow, and the use of exhausted filters are presented. View Full-Text
Keywords: filter beds; pathogen removal; point-of-use technologies; safe drinking water; zero-valent iron filter beds; pathogen removal; point-of-use technologies; safe drinking water; zero-valent iron
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Yang, H.; Hu, R.; Ndé-Tchoupé, A.I.; Gwenzi, W.; Ruppert, H.; Noubactep, C. Designing the Next Generation of Fe0-Based Filters for Decentralized Safe Drinking Water Treatment: A Conceptual Framework. Processes 2020, 8, 745.

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