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Open AccessArticle

A Retrofit Hierarchical Architecture for Real-Time Optimization and Control Integration

by Xiaochen Li 1, Lei Xie 1, Xiang Li 2 and Hongye Su 1,*
1
State Key Laboratory of Industrial Control Technology, Institute of Cyber-Systems and Control, Zhejiang University, Yuquan Campus, Hangzhou 310027, China
2
Department of Chemical Engineering, Queen’s University, 19 Division St., Kingston, ON K7L 3N6, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Processes 2020, 8(2), 181; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8020181
Received: 9 December 2019 / Revised: 25 January 2020 / Accepted: 29 January 2020 / Published: 5 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Process Optimization and Control)
To achieve the optimal operation of chemical processes in the presence of disturbances and uncertainty, a retrofit hierarchical architecture (HA) integrating real-time optimization (RTO) and control was proposed. The proposed architecture features two main components. The first is a fast extremum-seeking control (ESC) approach using transient measurements that is employed in the upper RTO layer. The fast ESC approach can effectively suppress the impact of plant-model mismatch and steady-state wait time. The second is a global self-optimizing control (SOC) scheme that is introduced to integrate the RTO and control layers. The proposed SOC scheme minimizes the global average loss based on the approximation of necessary conditions of optimality (NCO) over the entire operating region. A least-squares regression technique was adopted to select the controlled variables (CVs) as linear combinations of measurements. The proposed method does not require the second order derivative information, therefore, it is numerically more reliable and robust. An exothermic reaction process is presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. View Full-Text
Keywords: optimal operation; hierarchical architecture; extremum-seeking control; self-optimizing control; necessary conditions of optimality; least-squares regression optimal operation; hierarchical architecture; extremum-seeking control; self-optimizing control; necessary conditions of optimality; least-squares regression
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Li, X.; Xie, L.; Li, X.; Su, H. A Retrofit Hierarchical Architecture for Real-Time Optimization and Control Integration. Processes 2020, 8, 181.

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