The rapid industrialization of cities has brought many challenges to the environment and resources. Industrial wastes, automobile exhaust, coal combustion soot and other pollutants accumulate in urban soil, and the characteristics of urban soil are changed, causing many pollutants to accumulate in the urban soil environment. Heavy metals are toxic and harmful pollutants existing in soil that cannot be biodegraded or thermally degraded; thus, heavy metals pose a threat to environmental quality and humans. To solve the environmental pollution of soil heavy metals, we utilize kriging interpolation to determine the geological distribution of the environmental pollution of metal elements and analyze the main causes of soil heavy metal pollution. Next, the propagation characteristics and diffusion process of heavy metal pollutants are thoroughly analyzed; in addition, an improved one-dimensional convective dispersion model and an improved air subsidence model are established, and real urban soil data are taken as an example for the fitting test. The results show that the improved models that consider more factors, such as adsorption or decomposition factors during the process of convective dispersion, absorption and expulsion factors of the crop root and topographic factors and height changes during the process of air subsidence, are effective. This paper is helpful for distinguishing the primary pollution sources and migration routes of soil metal element pollution and provides a certain reference value for protecting the environment and reducing heavy metal pollution.
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