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Hierarchical Cs–Pollucite Nanozeolite Modified with Novel Organosilane as an Excellent Solid Base Catalyst for Claisen–Schmidt Condensation of Benzaldehyde and Acetophenone

1
School of Chemical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang 11800 USM, Malaysia
2
Department of Chemistry (Preparatory Year), Faculty of Science, University of Hail, P.O. Box 2440, Hail 18451, Saudi Arabia
3
Chemistry Education Department, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia, Jl. Setiabudhi 258, Bandung 40514, Indonesia
4
Axe Matériaux à Porosités Contrôlées, Institut de Science de Matériaux de Mulhouse UMR 7361, Université de Haute-Alsace, ENSCMu, 3b rue Alfred Werner, 68093 Mulhouse, France
5
Université de Strasbourg, 67000 Strasbourg, France
6
Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Processes 2020, 8(1), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8010096
Received: 24 December 2019 / Revised: 8 January 2020 / Accepted: 9 January 2020 / Published: 10 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Application of Novel Nanocatalysts)
Cs–pollucite can be a potential solid base catalyst due to the presence of (Si-O-Al)Cs+ basic sites. However, it severely suffers from molecular diffusion and pore accessibility problems due to its small micropore opening. Herein, we report the use of new organosilane, viz. dimethyloctadecyl[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]ammonium chloride (TPOAC), as a promising pore-expanding agent to develop the hierarchical structure in nanosized Cs–pollucite. In respect to this, four different amounts of TPOAC were added during the synthesis of hierarchical Cs–pollucite (CP-x, x = 0, 0.3, 1.0, or 2.0, where x is the molar ratio of TPOAC) in order to investigate the effects of TPOAC in the crystallization process of Cs–pollucite. The results show that an addition of TPOAC altered the physico-chemical and morphological properties of hierarchical Cs–pollucite, such as the crystallinity, crystallite size, pore size distribution, surface areas, pore volume, and surface basicity. The prepared solids were also tested in Claisen–Schmidt condensation of benzaldehyde and acetophenone, where 82.2% of the conversion and 100% selectivity to chalcone were achieved by the CP-2.0 catalyst using non-microwave instant heating (200 °C, 100 min). The hierarchical CP-2.0 nanocatalyst also showed better catalytic performance than other homogenous and heterogeneous catalysts and displayed a high catalyst reusability with no significant deterioration in the catalytic performance even after five consecutive reaction runs. View Full-Text
Keywords: Cs–pollucite; nanozeolite; hierarchical structure; organosilane porogen; Claisen–Schmidt condensation; non-microwave instant heating Cs–pollucite; nanozeolite; hierarchical structure; organosilane porogen; Claisen–Schmidt condensation; non-microwave instant heating
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Mohammad S., A.G.; Khoerunnisa, F.; Rigolet, S.; Daou, T.J.; Ling, T.-C.; Ng, E.-P. Hierarchical Cs–Pollucite Nanozeolite Modified with Novel Organosilane as an Excellent Solid Base Catalyst for Claisen–Schmidt Condensation of Benzaldehyde and Acetophenone. Processes 2020, 8, 96.

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