Next Article in Journal
A Dynamic Active Safe Semi-Supervised Learning Framework for Fault Identification in Labeled Expensive Chemical Processes
Previous Article in Journal
Hygro-Thermo-Mechanical Responses of Balsa Wood Core Sandwich Composite Beam Exposed to Fire
Previous Article in Special Issue
Equilibrium and Kinetic Studies of Biosorptive Removal of 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol from Aqueous Solutions Using Untreated Agro-Waste Pine Cone Biomass
Open AccessArticle

Ultrasonically Induced Sulfur-Doped Carbon Nitride/Cobalt Ferrite Nanocomposite for Efficient Sonocatalytic Removal of Organic Dyes

1
Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, National Taipei University of Technology, No. 1, Section 3, Zhongxiao East Road, Da’an District, Taipei 106, Taiwan
2
Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Nottingham Malaysia, Broga Road, Semenyih, Selangor 43500, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Processes 2020, 8(1), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8010104
Received: 21 November 2019 / Revised: 21 December 2019 / Accepted: 3 January 2020 / Published: 13 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Liquid Waste and Gas Waste Treatment Processes)
The sulfur-doped carbon nitride/cobalt ferrite nanocomposite (SCN/CoFe2O4) was prepared via ultrasonication and studied for the sonocatalytic degradation of wastewater organic dye pollutants including methylene blue, rhodamine B, and Congo red. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the presence and atomic ratios of S, C, N, Co, Fe, and O elements and their corresponding bonds with Co2+ and Fe3+ cations. The nanocomposite was found to have aggregated nanoparticles on a sheet-like structure. The bandgap energy was estimated to be 1.85 eV. For the sonocatalytic degradation of 25-ppm methylene blue at 20 kHz, 1 W and 50% amplitude, the best operating condition was determined to be 1 g/L of catalyst dosage and 4 vol % of hydrogen peroxide loading. Under this condition, the sonocatalytic removal efficiency was the highest at 96% within a reaction period of 20 min. SCN/CoFe2O4 outperformed SCN and CoFe2O4 by 2.2 and 6.8 times, respectively. The SCN/CoFe2O4 nanocomposite was also found to have good reusability with a drop of only 7% after the fifth cycle. However, the degradation efficiencies were low when tested with rhodamine B and Congo red due to difference in dye sizes, structural compositions, and electric charges. View Full-Text
Keywords: SCN/CoFe2O4; nanocomposite; sonocatalyst; ultrasound-assisted degradation; organic dye; ultrasound; carbon nitride; cobalt ferrite; catalyst SCN/CoFe2O4; nanocomposite; sonocatalyst; ultrasound-assisted degradation; organic dye; ultrasound; carbon nitride; cobalt ferrite; catalyst
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Kamal, S.; Pan, G.-T.; Chong, S.; Yang, T. .-K. Ultrasonically Induced Sulfur-Doped Carbon Nitride/Cobalt Ferrite Nanocomposite for Efficient Sonocatalytic Removal of Organic Dyes. Processes 2020, 8, 104.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop