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Open AccessArticle

Quantification of Carbonyl Compounds Generated from Ozone-Based Food Colorants Decomposition Using On-Fiber Derivatization-SPME-GC-MS

1
Interdepartmental Toxicology Program, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA
2
Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA
3
Department of Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA
4
Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA
5
DuPont Crop Protection, Stine-Haskell Research Center, 1090 Elkton Road, Newark, Delaware, DE 19714, USA
6
Department of Environmental Engineering, Mersin University, Mersin 33110, Turkey
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Mary Boyce
Chromatography 2015, 2(1), 1-18; https://doi.org/10.3390/chromatography2010001
Received: 3 December 2014 / Accepted: 19 December 2014 / Published: 24 December 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solid Phase Micro-Extraction)
Fruit leathers (FLs) production produces some not-to-specification material, which contains valuable ingredients like fruit pulp, sugars and acidulates. Recovery of FL for product recycling requires decolorization. In earlier research, we proved the efficiency of an ozone-based decolorization process; however, it produces carbonyls as major byproducts, which could be of concern. A headspace solid-phase microextraction with on-fiber derivatization followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed for 10 carbonyls analysis in ozonated FL solution/suspension. Effects of dopant concentration, derivatization temperature and time were studied. The adapted method was used to analyze ozonated FL solution/suspension samples. Dopant concentration and derivatization temperature were optimized to 17 mg/mL and 60 °C, respectively. Competitive extraction was studied, and 5 s extraction time was used to avoid non-linear derivatization of 2-furfural. The detection limits (LODs) for target carbonyls ranged from 0.016 and 0.030 µg/L. A much lower LOD (0.016 ppb) for 2-furfural was achieved compared with 6 and 35 ppb in previous studies. Analysis results confirmed the robustness of the adapted method for quantification of carbonyls in recycled process water treated with ozone-based decolorization. Ethanal, hexanal, 2-furfural, and benzaldehyde were identified as byproducts of known toxicity but all found below levels for concern. View Full-Text
Keywords: carbonyl compounds; on-fiber derivatization SPME-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; ozone-based decolorization; PFBHA; processed aqueous solution/suspension; fruit pulp carbonyl compounds; on-fiber derivatization SPME-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; ozone-based decolorization; PFBHA; processed aqueous solution/suspension; fruit pulp
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Zhu, W.; Koziel, J.A.; Cai, L.; Özsoy, H.D.; Van Leeuwen, J.H. Quantification of Carbonyl Compounds Generated from Ozone-Based Food Colorants Decomposition Using On-Fiber Derivatization-SPME-GC-MS. Chromatography 2015, 2, 1-18.

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