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Article

The Role of Cognitive Skills, Sex, and Parental Education for Social–Emotional Skills: A Cross-Sectional Study on the WPPSI-IV Performances of Children Aged 3 to 5 Years

1
Department of Medicine, Medical School Hamburg, 20457 Hamburg, Germany
2
Department of Educational Psychology, Helmut-Schmidt-University/University of the Federal Armed Forces, 22043 Hamburg, Germany
3
Department of Clinical Psychology, Helmut-Schmidt-University/University of the Federal Armed Forces, 22043 Hamburg, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Manuela Verissimo
Children 2022, 9(5), 730; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9050730
Received: 28 March 2022 / Revised: 6 May 2022 / Accepted: 12 May 2022 / Published: 17 May 2022
Background: Current research suggests that knowledge about the relationship between cognition and social–emotional skills in preschoolers is important to better understand child development. The present study investigated possible effects of cognitive skills measured by the Wechsler Primary and Preschool Scale—Fourth Edition (WPPSI-IV), children’s sex, and parental educational level on social–-emotional skills measured by the Developmental Test 6 Months to 6 Years—Revision (ET 6-6 R) for children aged 3 to 5. Methods: Statistical analyses were based on a sample of N = 93 children (47 females, 46 males). First, bivariate correlations among relevant WPPSI-IV index scores, the ET social–emotional quotient, children’s sex, and parental educational level were calculated to identify possible significant associations between the variables under investigation. Subsequently, two multiple regression analyses were conducted to test for the hypothesized main effects of cognitive skills, children’s sex, and parental educational level on social–emotional skills. Finally, a moderated multiple regression analysis was carried out to investigate whether possible effects of cognitive skills on social–emotional skills were moderated by children’s sex and parental educational level. Results: Regression analyses indicated that visual–spatial skills measured by the WPPSI-IV and children’s sex have both a small but significant main effect on social–emotional skills. The main effect of sex was due to the fact that, on average, females achieved higher scores on the measure of social–emotional skills than males. Conclusions: The present findings suggest that the WPPSI-IV represents a suitable test battery for the assessment of those cognitive skills, which might play a reasonable role in social–emotional development View Full-Text
Keywords: WPPSI-IV; preschoolers; social–emotional development; cognition; visual–spatial skills; sex differences WPPSI-IV; preschoolers; social–emotional development; cognition; visual–spatial skills; sex differences
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MDPI and ACS Style

Walter, F.; Daseking, M.; Pauls, F. The Role of Cognitive Skills, Sex, and Parental Education for Social–Emotional Skills: A Cross-Sectional Study on the WPPSI-IV Performances of Children Aged 3 to 5 Years. Children 2022, 9, 730. https://doi.org/10.3390/children9050730

AMA Style

Walter F, Daseking M, Pauls F. The Role of Cognitive Skills, Sex, and Parental Education for Social–Emotional Skills: A Cross-Sectional Study on the WPPSI-IV Performances of Children Aged 3 to 5 Years. Children. 2022; 9(5):730. https://doi.org/10.3390/children9050730

Chicago/Turabian Style

Walter, Franziska, Monika Daseking, and Franz Pauls. 2022. "The Role of Cognitive Skills, Sex, and Parental Education for Social–Emotional Skills: A Cross-Sectional Study on the WPPSI-IV Performances of Children Aged 3 to 5 Years" Children 9, no. 5: 730. https://doi.org/10.3390/children9050730

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