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Article

Peer Influence during Adolescence: The Moderating Role of Parental Support

1
Department of Counseling, Higher Education, and Special Education, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
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Department of Psychology, University of Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14260, USA
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Department of Human Development and Quantitative Methodology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
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Department of Human Psychology, Brock University, St. Catharines, ON L2S 3A1, Canada
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Center on Human Development and Disability, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
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Department of Psychology, Florida Atlantic University, Fort Lauderdale, FL 33314, USA
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Center for Health Policy & Health Services Research, Henry Ford Health Systems, Detroit, MI 48202, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Amanda W. Harrist and Michael M. Criss
Children 2021, 8(4), 306; https://doi.org/10.3390/children8040306
Received: 14 February 2021 / Revised: 3 April 2021 / Accepted: 15 April 2021 / Published: 17 April 2021
Although many studies show that peers influence the development of adolescent internalizing and externalizing difficulties, few have considered both internalizing and externalizing difficulties in the same study, and fewer have considered the contributions of parents. Using a longitudinal sample of 385 adolescents, the contributions of best friends’ internalizing and externalizing difficulties (as assessed in Grade 6; G6: Mage = 13.64 years; 53% female; 40% ethnic or racial minority) were examined as they predicted subsequent adolescent internalizing and externalizing difficulties (at G8); in addition, the moderating role of both maternal and paternal support (at G6) was explored. Structural equation modelling revealed that best friend internalizing difficulties predicted decreases, but that best friend externalizing difficulties predicted increases in adolescents’ externalizing difficulties over time. Significant interactions involving both maternal and paternal support revealed that the negative impact of a G6 best friend having internalizing problems on later G8 adolescent externalizing problems was stronger at low levels of maternal and paternal support. The findings highlight the complex, and interactive, influences of friends and parents on the development of internalizing and externalizing symptomatology during adolescence, and underscore the importance of targeting both sources of social influence in research and clinical work. View Full-Text
Keywords: peer influence; parental support; internalizing problems; externalizing problems; adolescence peer influence; parental support; internalizing problems; externalizing problems; adolescence
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MDPI and ACS Style

Havewala, M.; Bowker, J.C.; Smith, K.A.; Rose-Krasnor, L.; Booth-LaForce, C.; Laursen, B.; Felton, J.W.; Rubin, K.H. Peer Influence during Adolescence: The Moderating Role of Parental Support. Children 2021, 8, 306. https://doi.org/10.3390/children8040306

AMA Style

Havewala M, Bowker JC, Smith KA, Rose-Krasnor L, Booth-LaForce C, Laursen B, Felton JW, Rubin KH. Peer Influence during Adolescence: The Moderating Role of Parental Support. Children. 2021; 8(4):306. https://doi.org/10.3390/children8040306

Chicago/Turabian Style

Havewala, Mazneen, Julie C. Bowker, Kelly A. Smith, Linda Rose-Krasnor, Cathryn Booth-LaForce, Brett Laursen, Julia W. Felton, and Kenneth H. Rubin. 2021. "Peer Influence during Adolescence: The Moderating Role of Parental Support" Children 8, no. 4: 306. https://doi.org/10.3390/children8040306

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