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The Measurement of Strength in Children: Is the Peak Value Truly Maximal?

1
Department of Sport and Health Science, Tokai Gakuen University, Miyoshi, Aichi 470-0207, Japan
2
Kevser Ermin Applied Physiology Laboratory, Department of Health, Exercise Science & Recreation Management, The University of Mississippi, Oxford, MS 38677, USA
3
Department of Health and Exercise Science, Rowan University, Glassboro, NJ 08028, USA
4
Graduate School of Health and Sports Science, Juntendo University, Inzai, Chiba 270-1695, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Children 2021, 8(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/children8010009
Received: 29 November 2020 / Revised: 20 December 2020 / Accepted: 23 December 2020 / Published: 26 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Skeletal Muscle Development from Infancy to Adolescence)
It is unclear whether the measurement of maximum muscle strength in younger children can be performed accurately due to factors such as motivation and maturity (i.e., the ability to receive instruction). If there is a large change in a ratio between muscular strength and size from the youngest to the oldest, then this might provide some indication that the youngest may not have been able to voluntarily activate their muscles for reasons mentioned previously. The purpose of this study was to observe the ratio between handgrip strength (HGS) and forearm muscle thickness (MT) across differing ages in younger children. A total of 1133 preschool children (559 boys and 574 girls) between the ages of 4.5 and 6.5 years had MT and HGS measurements and calculated the ratio of HGS/MT (kg/cm). Linear regression was used to assess the impact of age and sex on the dependent variables of MT, HGS, and the HGS/MT ratio. The HGS/MT ratio increases moderately from age 4.5 to 6.5 in both boys and girls. However, the difference in this ratio was small between the age ranges in this sample. Our results indicate children as young as 4.5 may be accurately measured with the handgrip strength test. View Full-Text
Keywords: strength development; forearm muscle thickness; grip strength; ultrasonography strength development; forearm muscle thickness; grip strength; ultrasonography
MDPI and ACS Style

Ozaki, H.; Abe, T.; Dankel, S.J.; Loenneke, J.P.; Natsume, T.; Deng, P.; Naito, H. The Measurement of Strength in Children: Is the Peak Value Truly Maximal? Children 2021, 8, 9. https://doi.org/10.3390/children8010009

AMA Style

Ozaki H, Abe T, Dankel SJ, Loenneke JP, Natsume T, Deng P, Naito H. The Measurement of Strength in Children: Is the Peak Value Truly Maximal? Children. 2021; 8(1):9. https://doi.org/10.3390/children8010009

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ozaki, Hayao, Takashi Abe, Scott J. Dankel, Jeremy P. Loenneke, Toshiharu Natsume, Pengyu Deng, and Hisashi Naito. 2021. "The Measurement of Strength in Children: Is the Peak Value Truly Maximal?" Children 8, no. 1: 9. https://doi.org/10.3390/children8010009

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