Next Article in Journal
Managing Congenital Lobar Overinflation Associated with Congenital Heart Disease
Next Article in Special Issue
Exploring the Moderation Effect of Educational Stage on Visual Magnocellular Functioning Linked to Reading: A Study in French Primary School Children
Previous Article in Journal
Outcomes of Device Closure of Atrial Septal Defects
Open AccessArticle

Associations between Learning and Behavioral Difficulties in Second-Grade Children

1
IRCCS Fondazione Stella Maris, Scientific Institute of Child Neurology and Psychiatry Pisa, 56018 Calambrone, Italy
2
Department of Education, Psychology, Communication, University of Bari, 70121 Bari, Italy
3
CRED Della Zona Educativa Pisana, 56121 Pisa, Italy
4
Department of Education, Language, Interculture and Psychology, University of Florence, 50121 Florence, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Children 2020, 7(9), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/children7090112
Received: 9 July 2020 / Revised: 20 August 2020 / Accepted: 24 August 2020 / Published: 26 August 2020
Learning and behavioral difficulties often emerge during the first years of primary school and are one of the most important issues of concern for families and schools. The study was aimed at investigating the co-occurrence of difficulties between academic learning and emotional-behavioral control in typically developing school children and the moderating role of sex. A sample of 640 second-grade school children participated in the study. This study used the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire to measure the emotional and behavioral difficulties and a battery of objective and standardized tests to evaluate the learning skills in children. In this sample 7% to 16% of children performed below the normal range in reading and/or arithmetic tests. Mixed models showed that children’s hyperactive behaviors were positively related to both reading and math difficulties, and emotional problems correlated negatively with reading accuracy. The more children displayed behavioral difficulties, the more they were exposed to the risk of worsening reading and math performance, especially for girls. The result that among different emotional-behavioral problems within the school setting, hyperactivity behaviors and emotional difficulties are related to learning difficulties with a moderate effect of sex, needs to be taken into account in screening and prevention programs for learning difficulties in order to not disregard the complexity of the associated profiles. View Full-Text
Keywords: screening; hyperactivity; emotional problems; mathematical skills; reading skills screening; hyperactivity; emotional problems; mathematical skills; reading skills
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Castro, E.; Cotov, M.; Brovedani, P.; Coppola, G.; Meoni, T.; Papini, M.; Terlizzi, T.; Vernucci, C.; Pecini, C.; Muratori, P. Associations between Learning and Behavioral Difficulties in Second-Grade Children. Children 2020, 7, 112. https://doi.org/10.3390/children7090112

AMA Style

Castro E, Cotov M, Brovedani P, Coppola G, Meoni T, Papini M, Terlizzi T, Vernucci C, Pecini C, Muratori P. Associations between Learning and Behavioral Difficulties in Second-Grade Children. Children. 2020; 7(9):112. https://doi.org/10.3390/children7090112

Chicago/Turabian Style

Castro, Emanuela; Cotov, Maria; Brovedani, Paola; Coppola, Gabrielle; Meoni, Tania; Papini, Marina; Terlizzi, Tania; Vernucci, Chiara; Pecini, Chiara; Muratori, Pietro. 2020. "Associations between Learning and Behavioral Difficulties in Second-Grade Children" Children 7, no. 9: 112. https://doi.org/10.3390/children7090112

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop