Next Issue
Previous Issue

Table of Contents

Children, Volume 6, Issue 4 (April 2019)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Cover Story (view full-size image) Most newborn infants do well at birth; however, some require immediate attention by a team with [...] Read more.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-12
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessCommentary
A Primer on Multimodal Imaging and Cardiology-Radiology Congenital Heart Interface
Received: 4 March 2019 / Revised: 12 April 2019 / Accepted: 17 April 2019 / Published: 23 April 2019
Viewed by 406 | PDF Full-text (1829 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Pediatric cardiology imaging laboratories in the present day have several modalities for imaging of congenital and acquired cardiovascular disease. These modalities include echocardiography, cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging, cardiac computed tomography and nuclear imaging. The utility and limitations of multimodal imaging is described herein [...] Read more.
Pediatric cardiology imaging laboratories in the present day have several modalities for imaging of congenital and acquired cardiovascular disease. These modalities include echocardiography, cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging, cardiac computed tomography and nuclear imaging. The utility and limitations of multimodal imaging is described herein along with a framework for establishing a cardiology-radiology interface. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Neonatal Resuscitation with an Intact Cord: Current and Ongoing Trials
Received: 13 March 2019 / Revised: 15 April 2019 / Accepted: 19 April 2019 / Published: 22 April 2019
Viewed by 653 | PDF Full-text (842 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction
Abstract
Premature and full-term infants are at high risk of morbidities such as intraventricular hemorrhage or hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. The sickest infants at birth are the most likely to die and or develop intraventricular hemorrhage. Delayed cord clamping has been shown to reduce these morbidities, [...] Read more.
Premature and full-term infants are at high risk of morbidities such as intraventricular hemorrhage or hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. The sickest infants at birth are the most likely to die and or develop intraventricular hemorrhage. Delayed cord clamping has been shown to reduce these morbidities, but is currently not provided to those infants that need immediate resuscitation. This review will discuss recently published and ongoing or planned clinical trials involving neonatal resuscitation while the newborn is still attached to the umbilical cord. We will discuss the implications on neonatal management and delivery room care should this method become standard practice. We will review previous and ongoing trials that provided respiratory support compared to no support. Lastly, we will discuss the implications of implementing routine resuscitation support outside of a research setting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Concepts in Neonatal Resuscitation)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Safety and Ergonomic Challenges of Ventilating a Premature Infant During Delayed Cord Clamping
Received: 1 March 2019 / Revised: 3 April 2019 / Accepted: 9 April 2019 / Published: 13 April 2019
Viewed by 541 | PDF Full-text (853 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Delayed cord clamping (DCC) is endorsed by multiple professional organizations for both term and preterm infants. In preterm infants, DCC has been shown to reduce intraventricular hemorrhage, lower incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis, and reduce the need for transfusions. Furthermore, in preterm animal models, [...] Read more.
Delayed cord clamping (DCC) is endorsed by multiple professional organizations for both term and preterm infants. In preterm infants, DCC has been shown to reduce intraventricular hemorrhage, lower incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis, and reduce the need for transfusions. Furthermore, in preterm animal models, ventilation during DCC leads to improved hemodynamics. While providing ventilation and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) during DCC may benefit infants, the logistics of performing such a maneuver can be complicated. In this simulation-based study, we sought to explore attitudes of providers along with the safety and ergonomic challenges involved with safely resuscitating a newborn infant while attached to the placenta. Multidisciplinary workshops were held simulating vaginal and Caesarean deliveries, during which providers started positive pressure ventilation and transitioned to holding CPAP on a preterm manikin. Review of videos identified 5 themes of concerns: sterility, equipment, mobility, space and workflow, and communication. In this study, simulation was a key methodology for safe identification of various safety and ergonomic issues related to implementation of ventilation during DCC. Centers interested in implementing DCC with ventilation are encouraged to form multidisciplinary work groups and utilize simulations prior to performing care on infants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Concepts in Neonatal Resuscitation)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Creating a Pharmacotherapy Collaborative Practice Network to Manage Medications for Children and Youth: A Population Health Perspective
Received: 22 February 2019 / Revised: 2 April 2019 / Accepted: 3 April 2019 / Published: 9 April 2019
Viewed by 501 | PDF Full-text (2967 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Children with special health care needs (CSHCN) use relatively high quantities of healthcare resources and have overall higher morbidity than the general pediatric population. Embedding clinical pharmacists into the Patient-Centered Medical Home (PCMH) to provide comprehensive medication management (CMM) through collaborative practice agreements [...] Read more.
Children with special health care needs (CSHCN) use relatively high quantities of healthcare resources and have overall higher morbidity than the general pediatric population. Embedding clinical pharmacists into the Patient-Centered Medical Home (PCMH) to provide comprehensive medication management (CMM) through collaborative practice agreements (CPAs) for children, especially for CSHCN, can improve outcomes, enhance the experience of care for families, and reduce the cost of care. Potential network infrastructures for collaborative practice focused on CSHCN populations, common language and terminology for CMM, and clinical pharmacist workforce estimates are provided. Applying the results from the CMM in Primary Care grant, this paper outlines the following: (1) setting up collaborative practices for CMM between clinical pharmacists and pediatricians (primary care pediatricians and sub-specialties, such as pediatric clinical pharmacology); (2) proposing various models, organizational structures, design requirements, and shared electronic health record (EHR) needs; and (3) outlining consistent documentation of CMM by clinical pharmacists in CSHCN populations. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Toolkit for Population Health Initiatives Around the Globe Related to Collaborative Comprehensive Medication Management for Children and Youth
Received: 13 February 2019 / Revised: 2 April 2019 / Accepted: 2 April 2019 / Published: 8 April 2019
Viewed by 501 | PDF Full-text (235 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Almost 30 million babies worldwide are born prematurely or become ill annually and need specialized care to survive. Formalized collaborative practice agreements (CPA) between clinical pharmacists and physicians have been put forward as a means for improving the overall medicating experience in many [...] Read more.
Almost 30 million babies worldwide are born prematurely or become ill annually and need specialized care to survive. Formalized collaborative practice agreements (CPA) between clinical pharmacists and physicians have been put forward as a means for improving the overall medicating experience in many patient populations, including children. This report briefly describes opportunities for collaboration using examples from countries on each continent where CPA is established in professional governance documents and standards. It also provides resources in the form of a toolkit for countries and pharmacist–physician collaborators to authorize and form CPAs to provide comprehensive medication management (CMM) for children and youth with special health care needs (CSHCN). Full article
Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of a Neonatal Resuscitation Curriculum in Liberia
Received: 18 March 2019 / Revised: 3 April 2019 / Accepted: 4 April 2019 / Published: 8 April 2019
Viewed by 606 | PDF Full-text (218 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Neonatal mortality in Africa is among the highest in the world. In Liberia, providers face significant challenges due to lack of resources, and providers in referral centers need to be prepared to appropriately provide neonatal resuscitation. A team of American Heart Association health [...] Read more.
Neonatal mortality in Africa is among the highest in the world. In Liberia, providers face significant challenges due to lack of resources, and providers in referral centers need to be prepared to appropriately provide neonatal resuscitation. A team of American Heart Association health care providers taught a two-day neonatal resuscitation curriculum designed for low-resource settings at a regional hospital in Liberia. The goal of this study was to evaluate if the curriculum improved knowledge and comfort in participation. The curriculum included simulations and was based on the Neonatal Resuscitation Protocol (NRP). Students learned newborn airway management, quality chest compression skills, and resuscitation interventions through lectures and manikin-based simulation sessions. Seventy-five participants were trained. There was a 63% increase in knowledge scores post training (p < 0.00001). Prior cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training, age, occupation, and pre-intervention test score did not have a significant effect on post-intervention knowledge test scores. The median provider comfort score improved from a 4 to 5 (p < 0.00001). Factors such as age, sex, prior NRP education, occupation, and post-intervention test scores did not have a significant effect on the post-intervention comfort level score. A modified NRP and manikin simulation-based curriculum may be an effective way of teaching health care providers in resource-limited settings. Training of providers in limited-resource settings could potentially help decrease neonatal mortality in Liberia. Modification of protocols is sometimes necessary and an important part of providing context-specific training. The results of this study have no direct relation to decreasing neonatal mortality until proven. A general resuscitation curriculum with modified NRP training may be effective, and further work should focus on the effect of such interventions on neonatal mortality rates in the region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Concepts in Neonatal Resuscitation)
Open AccessArticle
Trends in Food Insecurity and SNAP Participation among Immigrant Families of U.S.-Born Young Children
Received: 4 March 2019 / Revised: 29 March 2019 / Accepted: 30 March 2019 / Published: 4 April 2019
Viewed by 709 | PDF Full-text (1693 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Immigrant families are known to be at higher risk of food insecurity compared to non-immigrant families. Documented immigrants in the U.S. <5 years are ineligible for the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). Immigration enforcement, anti-immigrant rhetoric, and policies negatively targeting immigrants have increased [...] Read more.
Immigrant families are known to be at higher risk of food insecurity compared to non-immigrant families. Documented immigrants in the U.S. <5 years are ineligible for the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). Immigration enforcement, anti-immigrant rhetoric, and policies negatively targeting immigrants have increased in recent years. Anecdotal reports suggest immigrant families forgo assistance, even if eligible, related to fear of deportation or future ineligibility for citizenship. In the period of January 2007–June 2018, 37,570 caregivers of young children (ages 0–4) were interviewed in emergency rooms and primary care clinics in Boston, Baltimore, Philadelphia, Minneapolis, and Little Rock. Food insecurity was measured using the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Food Security Survey Module. Overall, 21.4% of mothers were immigrants, including 3.8% in the U.S. <5 years (“<5 years”) and 17.64% ≥ 5 years (“5+ years”). SNAP participation among <5 years families increased in the period of 2007–2017 to 43% and declined in the first half of 2018 to 34.8%. For 5+ years families, SNAP participation increased to 44.7% in 2017 and decreased to 42.7% in 2018. SNAP decreases occurred concurrently with rising child food insecurity. Employment increased 2016–2018 among U.S.-born families and was stable among immigrant families. After steady increases in the prior 10 years, SNAP participation decreased in all immigrant families in 2018, but most markedly in more recent immigrants, while employment rates were unchanged. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Management of Congenital Heart Disease: State of the Art—Part II—Cyanotic Heart Defects
Received: 17 February 2019 / Revised: 15 March 2019 / Accepted: 29 March 2019 / Published: 4 April 2019
Viewed by 806 | PDF Full-text (20636 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this review management of the most common cyanotic congenital heart defects (CHDs) was discussed; the management of acyanotic CHD was reviewed in Part I of this series. While the need for intervention in acyanotic CHD is by and large determined by the [...] Read more.
In this review management of the most common cyanotic congenital heart defects (CHDs) was discussed; the management of acyanotic CHD was reviewed in Part I of this series. While the need for intervention in acyanotic CHD is by and large determined by the severity of the lesion, most cyanotic CHDs require intervention, mostly by surgery. Different types of tetralogy of Fallot require different types of total surgical corrective procedures, and some may require initial palliation, mainly by modified Blalock–Taussig shunts. Babies with transposition of the great arteries with an intact ventricular septum as well as those with ventricular septal defects (VSD) need an arterial switch (Jatene) procedure while those with both VSD and pulmonary stenosis should be addressed by Rastelli procedure. These procedures may need to be preceded by prostaglandin infusion and/or balloon atrial septostomy in some babies. Infants with tricuspid atresia require initial palliation either with a modified Blalock–Taussig shunt or banding of the pulmonary artery and subsequent staged Fontan (bidirectional Glenn and fenestrated Fontan with extra-cardiac conduit). Neonates with total anomalous pulmonary venous connection are managed by anastomosis of the common pulmonary vein with the left atrium either electively in non-obstructed types or as an emergency procedure in the obstructed types. Babies with truncus arteriosus are treated by surgical closure of VSD along with right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit. The other defects, namely, hypoplastic left heart syndrome, pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum, double-outlet right ventricle, double-inlet left ventricle and univentricular hearts largely require multistage surgical correction. The currently existing medical, trans-catheter and surgical techniques to manage cyanotic CHD are safe and effective and can be performed at a relatively low risk. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy with High Flow Rate Can Effectively, Safely, and Quickly Reduce Plasma Ammonia and Leucine Levels in Children
Received: 12 February 2019 / Revised: 30 March 2019 / Accepted: 1 April 2019 / Published: 4 April 2019
Viewed by 544 | PDF Full-text (1304 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Introduction: Peritoneal dialysis and continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) are the most frequently used treatment modalities for acute kidney injury. CRRT is currently being used for the treatment of several non-renal indications, such as congenital metabolic diseases. CRRT can efficiently remove toxic [...] Read more.
Introduction: Peritoneal dialysis and continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) are the most frequently used treatment modalities for acute kidney injury. CRRT is currently being used for the treatment of several non-renal indications, such as congenital metabolic diseases. CRRT can efficiently remove toxic metabolites and reverse the neurological symptoms quickly. However, there is not enough data for CRRT in children with metabolic diseases. Therefore, we aimed a retrospective study to describe the use of CRRT in metabolic diseases and its associated efficacy, complications, and outcomes. Materials and Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of the records of all patients admitted in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) for CRRT treatment. Results: Between December 2014 and November 2018, 97 patients were eligible for the present study. The age distribution was between 2 days and 17 years, with a mean of 3.77 ± 4.71 years. There were 13 (36.1%) newborn with metabolic diseases. The patients were divided into two groups: CRRT for metabolic diseases and others. There was a significant relationship between the groups, including age (p ≤ 0.001), weight (p = 0.028), blood flow rate (p ≤ 0.001); dialysate rate (p ≤ 0.001), and replacement rate (p ≤ 0.001). The leucine reduction rate was 3.88 ± 3.65 (% per hour). The ammonia reduction rate was 4.94 ± 5.05 in the urea cycle disorder group and 5.02 ± 4.54 in the organic acidemia group. The overall survival rate was 88.9% in metabolic diseases with CRRT. Conclusion: In particularly hemodynamically unstable patients, CRRT can effectively and quickly reduce plasma ammonia and leucine. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Oxygenation and Hemodynamics during Chest Compressions in a Lamb Model of Perinatal Asphyxia Induced Cardiac Arrest
Received: 6 March 2019 / Revised: 28 March 2019 / Accepted: 29 March 2019 / Published: 3 April 2019
Viewed by 560 | PDF Full-text (2694 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The current guidelines recommend the use of 100% O2 during resuscitation of a neonate requiring chest compressions (CC). Studies comparing 21% and 100% O2 during CC were conducted in postnatal models and have not shown a difference in incidence or timing [...] Read more.
The current guidelines recommend the use of 100% O2 during resuscitation of a neonate requiring chest compressions (CC). Studies comparing 21% and 100% O2 during CC were conducted in postnatal models and have not shown a difference in incidence or timing of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). The objective of this study is to evaluate systemic oxygenation and oxygen delivery to the brain during CC in an ovine model of perinatal asphyxial arrest induced by umbilical cord occlusion. Pulseless cardiac arrest was induced by umbilical cord occlusion in 22 lambs. After 5 min of asystole, lambs were resuscitated with 21% O2 as per Neonatal Resuscitation Program (NRP) guidelines. At the onset of CC, inspired O2 was either increased to 100% O2 (n = 25) or continued at 21% (n = 9). Lambs were ventilated for 30 min post ROSC and FiO2 was gradually titrated to achieve preductal SpO2 of 85–95%. All lambs achieved ROSC. During CC, PaO2 was 21.6 ± 1.6 mm Hg with 21% and 23.9 ± 6.8 mm Hg with 100% O2 (p = 0.16). Carotid flow was significantly lower during CC (1.2 ± 1.6 mL/kg/min in 21% and 3.2 ± 3.4 mL/kg/min in 100% oxygen) compared to baseline fetal levels (27 ± 9 mL/kg/min). Oxygen delivery to the brain was 0.05 ± 0.06 mL/kg/min in the 21% group and 0.11 ± 0.09 mL/kg/min in the 100% group and was significantly lower than fetal levels (2.1 ± 0.3 mL/kg/min). Immediately after ROSC, lambs ventilated with 100% O2 had higher PaO2 and pulmonary flow. It was concluded that carotid blood flow, systemic PaO2, and oxygen delivery to the brain are very low during chest compressions for cardiac arrest irrespective of 21% or 100% inspired oxygen use during resuscitation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Concepts in Neonatal Resuscitation)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Epinephrine in Neonatal Resuscitation
Received: 1 March 2019 / Revised: 28 March 2019 / Accepted: 29 March 2019 / Published: 2 April 2019
Viewed by 624 | PDF Full-text (2487 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Epinephrine is the only medication recommended by the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation for use in newborn resuscitation. Strong evidence from large clinical trials is lacking owing to the infrequent use of epinephrine during neonatal resuscitation. Current recommendations are weak as they are [...] Read more.
Epinephrine is the only medication recommended by the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation for use in newborn resuscitation. Strong evidence from large clinical trials is lacking owing to the infrequent use of epinephrine during neonatal resuscitation. Current recommendations are weak as they are extrapolated from animal models or pediatric and adult studies that do not adequately depict the transitioning circulation and fluid-filled lungs of the newborn in the delivery room. Many gaps in knowledge including the optimal dosing, best route and timing of epinephrine administration warrant further studies. Experiments on a well-established ovine model of perinatal asphyxial cardiac arrest closely mimicking the newborn infant provide important information that can guide future clinical trials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Concepts in Neonatal Resuscitation)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Use of Telemedicine to Improve Neonatal Resuscitation
Received: 28 February 2019 / Revised: 25 March 2019 / Accepted: 26 March 2019 / Published: 1 April 2019
Viewed by 592 | PDF Full-text (1227 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Most newborn infants do well at birth; however, some require immediate attention by a team with advanced resuscitation skills. Providers at rural or community hospitals do not have as much opportunity for practice of their resuscitation skills as providers at larger centers and [...] Read more.
Most newborn infants do well at birth; however, some require immediate attention by a team with advanced resuscitation skills. Providers at rural or community hospitals do not have as much opportunity for practice of their resuscitation skills as providers at larger centers and are, therefore, often unable to provide the high level of care needed in an emergency. Education through telemedicine can bring additional training opportunities to these rural sites in a low-resource model in order to better prepare them for advanced neonatal resuscitation. Telemedicine also offers the opportunity to immediately bring a more experienced team to newborns to provide support or even lead the resuscitation. Telemedicine can also be used to train and assist in the performance of emergent procedures occasionally required during a neonatal resuscitation including airway management, needle thoracentesis, and umbilical line placement. Telemedicine can provide unique opportunities to significantly increase the quality of neonatal resuscitation and stabilization in rural or community hospitals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Concepts in Neonatal Resuscitation)
Figures

Figure 1

Children EISSN 2227-9067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top