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Immunotherapeutic Potential of m6A-Modifiers and MicroRNAs in Controlling Acute Myeloid Leukaemia

1
Department of Biological Sciences, Sungkyunkwan University, Jangan-gu, Suwon 16419, Gyeonggi-do, Korea
2
Science Research Center (SRC) for Immune Research on Non-lymphoid Organ (CIRNO), Sungkyunkwan University, Jangan-gu, Suwon 16419, Gyeonggi-do, Korea
3
Department of Nutrition & Integrative Physiology, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306, USA
4
Medical Writer, Quebec City, QC G1X 3E1, Canada
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Amedeo Amedei
Biomedicines 2021, 9(6), 690; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9060690
Received: 8 May 2021 / Revised: 30 May 2021 / Accepted: 9 June 2021 / Published: 18 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Autoimmune Blistering Diseases)
Epigenetic alterations have contributed greatly to human carcinogenesis. Conventional epigenetic studies have been predominantly focused on DNA methylation, histone modifications, and chromatin remodelling. Epitranscriptomics is an emerging field that encompasses the study of RNA modifications that do not affect the RNA sequence but affect functionality via a series of RNA binding proteins called writer, reader and eraser. Several kinds of epi-RNA modifications are known, such as 6-methyladenosine (m6A), 5-methylcytidine (m5C), and 1-methyladenosine. M6A modification is the most studied and has large therapeutic implications. In this review, we have summarised the therapeutic potential of m6A-modifiers in controlling haematological disorders, especially acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). AML is a type of blood cancer affecting specific subsets of blood-forming hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs), which proliferate rapidly and acquire self-renewal capacities with impaired terminal cell-differentiation and apoptosis leading to abnormal accumulation of white blood cells, and thus, an alternative therapeutic approach is required urgently. Here, we have described how RNA m6A-modification machineries EEE (Editor/writer: Mettl3, Mettl14; Eraser/remover: FTO, ALKBH5, and Effector/reader: YTHDF-1/2) could be reformed into potential druggable candidates or as RNA-modifying drugs (RMD) to treat leukaemia. Moreover, we have shed light on the role of microRNAs and suppressors of cytokine signalling (SOCS/CISH) in increasing anti-tumour immunity towards leukaemia. We anticipate, our investigation will provide fundamental knowledge in nurturing the potential of RNA modifiers in discovering novel therapeutics or immunotherapeutic procedures. View Full-Text
Keywords: epitranscriptomics; acute myeloid leukaemia; microRNA; CISH; immunotherapeutics epitranscriptomics; acute myeloid leukaemia; microRNA; CISH; immunotherapeutics
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kumar, S.; Nagpal, R.; Kumar, A.; Ashraf, M.U.; Bae, Y.-S. Immunotherapeutic Potential of m6A-Modifiers and MicroRNAs in Controlling Acute Myeloid Leukaemia. Biomedicines 2021, 9, 690. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9060690

AMA Style

Kumar S, Nagpal R, Kumar A, Ashraf MU, Bae Y-S. Immunotherapeutic Potential of m6A-Modifiers and MicroRNAs in Controlling Acute Myeloid Leukaemia. Biomedicines. 2021; 9(6):690. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9060690

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kumar, Sunil, Ravinder Nagpal, Amit Kumar, Muhammad U. Ashraf, and Yong-Soo Bae. 2021. "Immunotherapeutic Potential of m6A-Modifiers and MicroRNAs in Controlling Acute Myeloid Leukaemia" Biomedicines 9, no. 6: 690. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9060690

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