Garcinol, a polyisoprenylated benzophenone, is the medicinal component obtained from fruits and leaves of Garcinia indica
) and has traditionally been extensively used for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In addition, it has been also been experimentally illustrated to elicit anti-cancer properties. Several in vitro and in vivo studies have illustrated the potential therapeutic efficiency of garcinol in management of different malignancies. It mainly acts as an inhibitor of cellular processes via regulation of transcription factors NF-κB and JAK/STAT3 in tumor cells and have been demonstrated to effectively inhibit growth of malignant cell population. Numerous studies have highlighted the anti-neoplastic potential of garcinol in different oncological transformations including colon cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, head and neck cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, etc. However, use of garcinol is still in its pre-clinical stage and this is mainly attributed to the limitations of conclusive evaluation of pharmacological parameters. This necessitates evaluation of garcinol pharmacokinetics to precisely identify an appropriate dose and route of administration, tolerability, and potency under physiological conditions along with characterization of a therapeutic index. Hence, the research is presently ongoing in the dimension of exploring the precise metabolic mechanism of garcinol. Despite various lacunae, garcinol has presented with promising anti-cancer effects. Hence, this review is motivated by the constantly emerging and promising positive anti-cancerous effects of garcinol. This review is the first effort to summarize the mechanism of action of garcinol in modulation of anti-cancer effect via regulation of different cellular processes.
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