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Biomedicines 2018, 6(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines6010003

Proposal of a Novel Natural Biomaterial, the Scleral Ossicle, for the Development of Vascularized Bone Tissue In Vitro

1
Department of Biomedical, Metabolic Science and Neuroscience, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Largo del Pozzo 71, 41125 Modena, Italy
2
Division of Oncology, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences for Children and Adults, University—Hospital of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Largo del Pozzo 71, 41125 Modena, Italy
3
Department of Engineering “Enzo Ferrari”, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via Pietro Vivarelli 10/1, 41125 Modena, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 November 2017 / Revised: 11 December 2017 / Accepted: 18 December 2017 / Published: 25 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bone Cells and Related Interactions)
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Abstract

Recovering of significant skeletal defects could be partially abortive due to the perturbations that affect the regenerative process when defects reach a critical size, thus resulting in a non-healed bone. The current standard treatments include allografting, autografting, and other bone implant techniques. However, although they are commonly used in orthopedic surgery, these treatments have some limitations concerning their costs and their side effects such as potential infections or malunions. On this account, the need for suitable constructs to fill the gap in wide fractures is still urgent. As an innovative solution, scleral ossicles (SOs) can be put forward as natural scaffolds for bone repair. SOs are peculiar bony plates forming a ring at the scleral-corneal border of the eyeball of lower vertebrates. In the preliminary phases of the study, these ossicles were structurally and functionally characterized. The morphological characterization was performed by SEM analysis, MicroCT analysis and optical profilometry. Then, UV sterilization was carried out to obtain a clean support, without neither contaminations nor modifications of the bone architecture. Subsequently, the SO biocompatibility was tested in culture with different cell lines, focusing the attention to the differentiation capability of endothelial and osteoblastic cells on the SO surface. The results obtained by the above mentioned analysis strongly suggest that SOs can be used as bio-scaffolds for functionalization processes, useful in regenerative medicine. View Full-Text
Keywords: scleral ossicles; natural scaffold; endothelial cells; osteoblastic cells scleral ossicles; natural scaffold; endothelial cells; osteoblastic cells
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Checchi, M.; Bertacchini, J.; Grisendi, G.; Smargiassi, A.; Sola, A.; Messori, M.; Palumbo, C. Proposal of a Novel Natural Biomaterial, the Scleral Ossicle, for the Development of Vascularized Bone Tissue In Vitro. Biomedicines 2018, 6, 3.

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