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Association of Adherence to a Mediterranean Diet with Excess Body Mass, Muscle Strength and Physical Performance in Overweight or Obese Adults with or without Type 2 Diabetes: Two Cross-Sectional Studies

School of Health and Behavioural Sciences, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sunshine Coast, QLD 4556, Australia
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Academic Editors: Chrysi Koliaki, Alessandro Sartorio and Rahman Shiri
Healthcare 2021, 9(10), 1255; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9101255
Received: 24 August 2021 / Revised: 21 September 2021 / Accepted: 21 September 2021 / Published: 24 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strategies to Combat Obesity in Older Adults)
Overweight and obesity in older adults is associated with disability and is exacerbated by the presence of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). There is emerging evidence that adherence to a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) reduces adiposity and attenuates physical disability. These cross-sectional studies explored the associations of adherence to a MedDiet with body mass index (BMI), adiposity, muscle strength, and physical performance in older adults without diabetes and in middle-aged or older adults with T2DM. MedDiet adherence was assessed using the Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener. Fat mass and percent body fat were assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Muscle strength was assessed using hand-grip strength, while physical performance was assessed using the Short Physical Performance Battery and gait speed. A total of n = 87 participants with T2DM (T2DM sample: 71.2 ± 8.2 years, BMI: 29.5 ± 5.9) and n = 65 participants without diabetes (non-T2DM sample: 68.7 ± 5.6 years, BMI: 33.7 ± 4.9) were included in these analyses. In the T2DM sample, when controlled for age, gender, and appendicular lean mass index, adherence to a MedDiet was inversely associated with BMI, fat mass, and percent body fat. However, this was no longer maintained in the fully adjusted models. Although, adherence to a MedDiet was positively associated with gait speed (β = 0.155; p = 0.050) independent of all covariates used. Adherence to a MedDiet may be a suitable dietary strategy for preserving lower body physical function in middle-aged and older adults with T2DM. However, these findings should be further investigated using well-designed randomised controlled trials and prospective cohort studies with a wider range of adherence scores to investigate temporal associations. View Full-Text
Keywords: Mediterranean diet; adiposity; muscle strength; physical performance; type 2 diabetes mellitus; ageing Mediterranean diet; adiposity; muscle strength; physical performance; type 2 diabetes mellitus; ageing
MDPI and ACS Style

Buchanan, A.; Villani, A. Association of Adherence to a Mediterranean Diet with Excess Body Mass, Muscle Strength and Physical Performance in Overweight or Obese Adults with or without Type 2 Diabetes: Two Cross-Sectional Studies. Healthcare 2021, 9, 1255. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9101255

AMA Style

Buchanan A, Villani A. Association of Adherence to a Mediterranean Diet with Excess Body Mass, Muscle Strength and Physical Performance in Overweight or Obese Adults with or without Type 2 Diabetes: Two Cross-Sectional Studies. Healthcare. 2021; 9(10):1255. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9101255

Chicago/Turabian Style

Buchanan, Amy, and Anthony Villani. 2021. "Association of Adherence to a Mediterranean Diet with Excess Body Mass, Muscle Strength and Physical Performance in Overweight or Obese Adults with or without Type 2 Diabetes: Two Cross-Sectional Studies" Healthcare 9, no. 10: 1255. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9101255

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