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Open AccessArticle

Proteomics Analysis of Urine to Examine Physical Effects of Warm Nano Mist Sauna Bathing

Biofluid Biomarker Center, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181, Japan
Department of Health Informatics, Faculty of Healthcare Management, Niigata University of Health and Welfare, Niigata 950-3198, Japan
Department of Clinical Laboratory, Shinrakuen Hospital, Niigata 950-2087, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Healthcare 2019, 7(2), 71;
Received: 16 April 2019 / Revised: 17 May 2019 / Accepted: 17 May 2019 / Published: 19 May 2019
Conventional sauna bathing may have some health benefits as it facilitates relaxing, detoxing and promoting metabolism. However, conventional sauna bathing at a high temperature may be harmful for the body by increasing the risk of heart failure. The nano-mist sauna has been developed to provide nano-size water particles at a lower temperature. Hence, nano-mist sauna bathing is expected to be useful for health without the risks that arise at high temperatures. In this study, we performed a comprehensive proteomics analysis of urine samples obtained from healthy volunteers before and after they had taken a sauna bath with nano-mist (n = 10) or with conventional mist (n = 10) daily for two weeks (4 groups). The average numbers of urine proteins identified by liquid chromatography-linked mass chromatography in each group varied from 678 to 753. Interestingly, the protein number was increased after sauna bathing both with nano-mist or with conventional mist. Quantitative analysis indicated that considerable numbers of proteins were obviously up-regulated, with more than two-folds in urine samples after the nano-mist sauna bathing. The KEGG pathway analysis showed significant stimulation of the lysosome pathway (p = 5.89E−6) after the nano-mist bathing, which may indicate the nano-mist sauna bathing promotes metabolism related to the lysosome pathway more efficiently than conventional mist sauna bathing and may provide more health benefits. View Full-Text
Keywords: sauna bathing; health assessment; urine sauna bathing; health assessment; urine
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Hirao, Y.; Kinoshita, N.; Xu, B.; Saito, S.; Quadery, A.F.; Elguoshy, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamamoto, T. Proteomics Analysis of Urine to Examine Physical Effects of Warm Nano Mist Sauna Bathing. Healthcare 2019, 7, 71.

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