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Proteomes, Volume 7, Issue 4 (December 2019)

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Open AccessReview
Innovating the Concept and Practice of Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis in the Analysis of Proteomes at the Proteoform Level
Proteomes 2019, 7(4), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/proteomes7040036 - 30 Oct 2019
Abstract
Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) is an important and well-established technical platform enabling extensive top-down proteomic analysis. However, the long-held but now largely outdated conventional concepts of 2DE have clearly impacted its application to in-depth investigations of proteomes at the level of protein species/proteoforms. [...] Read more.
Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) is an important and well-established technical platform enabling extensive top-down proteomic analysis. However, the long-held but now largely outdated conventional concepts of 2DE have clearly impacted its application to in-depth investigations of proteomes at the level of protein species/proteoforms. It is time to popularize a new concept of 2DE for proteomics. With the development and enrichment of the proteome concept, any given “protein” is now recognized to consist of a series of proteoforms. Thus, it is the proteoform, rather than the canonical protein, that is the basic unit of a proteome, and each proteoform has a specific isoelectric point (pI) and relative mass (Mr). Accordingly, using 2DE, each proteoform can routinely be resolved and arrayed according to its different pI and Mr. Each detectable spot contains multiple proteoforms derived from the same gene, as well as from different genes. Proteoforms derived from the same gene are distributed into different spots in a 2DE pattern. High-resolution 2DE is thus actually an initial level of separation to address proteome complexity and is effectively a pre-fractionation method prior to analysis using mass spectrometry (MS). Furthermore, stable isotope-labeled 2DE coupled with high-sensitivity liquid chromatography-tandem MS (LC-MS/MS) has tremendous potential for the large-scale detection, identification, and quantification of the proteoforms that constitute proteomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Top-down Proteomics: In Memory of Dr. Alfred Yergey)
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Open AccessArticle
Proteomic Analysis of 3T3-L1 Adipocytes Treated with Insulin and TNF-α
Proteomes 2019, 7(4), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/proteomes7040035 - 20 Oct 2019
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Abstract
Insulin resistance is an indication of early stage Type 2 diabetes (T2D). Insulin resistant adipose tissues contain higher levels of insulin than the physiological level, as well as higher amounts of intracellular tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and other cytokines. However, the mechanism of [...] Read more.
Insulin resistance is an indication of early stage Type 2 diabetes (T2D). Insulin resistant adipose tissues contain higher levels of insulin than the physiological level, as well as higher amounts of intracellular tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and other cytokines. However, the mechanism of insulin resistance remains poorly understood. To better understand the roles played by insulin and TNF-α in insulin resistance, we performed proteomic analysis of differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated with insulin (Ins), TNF-α (TNF), and both (Ins + TNF). Out of the 693 proteins identified, the abundances of 78 proteins were significantly different (p < 0.05). Carnitine parmitoyltransferase-2 (CPT2), acetyl CoA carboxylase 1 (ACCAC-1), ethylmalonyl CoA decarboxylase (ECHD1), and methylmalonyl CoA isomerase (MCEE), enzymes required for fatty acid β-oxidation and respiratory electron transport, and β-glucuronidase, an enzyme responsible for the breakdown of complex carbohydrates, were down-regulated in all the treatment groups, compared to the control group. In contrast, superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2), protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), and glutathione reductase, which are the proteins responsible for cytoskeletal structure, protein folding, degradation, and oxidative stress responses, were up-regulated. This suggests higher oxidative stress in cells treated with Ins, TNF, or both. We proposed a conceptual metabolic pathway impacted by the treatments and their possible link to insulin resistance or T2D. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Unbiased Thiol-Labeling and Top-Down Proteomic Analyses Implicate Multiple Proteins in the Late Steps of Regulated Secretion
Proteomes 2019, 7(4), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/proteomes7040034 - 27 Sep 2019
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Abstract
Regulated exocytosis enables temporal and spatial control over the secretion of biologically active compounds; however, the mechanism by which Ca2+ modulates different stages of exocytosis is still poorly understood. For an unbiased, top-down proteomic approach, select thiol- reactive reagents were used to [...] Read more.
Regulated exocytosis enables temporal and spatial control over the secretion of biologically active compounds; however, the mechanism by which Ca2+ modulates different stages of exocytosis is still poorly understood. For an unbiased, top-down proteomic approach, select thiol- reactive reagents were used to investigate this process in release-ready native secretory vesicles. We previously characterized a biphasic effect of these reagents on Ca2+-triggered exocytosis: low doses potentiated Ca2+ sensitivity, whereas high doses inhibited Ca2+ sensitivity and extent of vesicle fusion. Capitalizing on this novel potentiating effect, we have now identified fluorescent thiol- reactive reagents producing the same effects: Lucifer yellow iodoacetamide, monobromobimane, and dibromobimane. Top-down proteomic analyses of fluorescently labeled proteins from total and cholesterol-enriched vesicle membrane fractions using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry identified several candidate targets, some of which have been previously linked to the late steps of regulated exocytosis and some of which are novel. Initial validation studies indicate that Rab proteins are involved in the modulation of Ca2+ sensitivity, and thus the efficiency of membrane fusion, which may, in part, be linked to their previously identified upstream roles in vesicle docking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Top-down Proteomics: In Memory of Dr. Alfred Yergey)
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Open AccessArticle
Top-Down Proteomics of Medicinal Cannabis
Proteomes 2019, 7(4), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/proteomes7040033 - 24 Sep 2019
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Abstract
The revised legislation on medicinal cannabis has triggered a surge of research studies in this space. Yet, cannabis proteomics is lagging. In a previous study, we optimised the protein extraction of mature buds for bottom-up proteomics. In this follow-up study, we developed a [...] Read more.
The revised legislation on medicinal cannabis has triggered a surge of research studies in this space. Yet, cannabis proteomics is lagging. In a previous study, we optimised the protein extraction of mature buds for bottom-up proteomics. In this follow-up study, we developed a top-down mass spectrometry (MS) proteomics strategy to identify intact denatured protein from cannabis apical buds. After testing different source-induced dissociation (SID), collision-induced dissociation (CID), higher-energy collisional dissociation (HCD), and electron transfer dissociation (ETD) parameters on infused known protein standards, we devised three LC-MS/MS methods for top-down sequencing of cannabis proteins. Different MS/MS modes produced distinct spectra, albeit greatly overlapping between SID, CID, and HCD. The number of fragments increased with the energy applied; however, this did not necessarily translate into greater sequence coverage. Some precursors were more amenable to fragmentation than others. Sequence coverage decreased as the mass of the protein increased. Combining all MS/MS data maximised amino acid (AA) sequence coverage, achieving 73% for myoglobin. In this experiment, most cannabis proteins were smaller than 30 kD. A total of 46 cannabis proteins were identified with 136 proteoforms bearing different post-translational modifications (PTMs), including the excision of N-terminal M, the N-terminal acetylation, methylation, and acetylation of K resides, and phosphorylation. Most identified proteins are involved in photosynthesis, translation, and ATP production. Only one protein belongs to the phytocannabinoid biosynthesis, olivetolic acid cyclase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Top-down Proteomics: In Memory of Dr. Alfred Yergey)
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Open AccessArticle
In Silico Identification of Antimicrobial Peptides in the Proteomes of Goat and Sheep Milk and Feta Cheese
Proteomes 2019, 7(4), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/proteomes7040032 - 21 Sep 2019
Viewed by 413
Abstract
Milk and dairy products are a major functional food group of growing scientific and commercial interest due to their nutritional value and bioactive “load”. A major fraction of the latter is attributed to milk’s rich protein content and its biofunctional peptides that occur [...] Read more.
Milk and dairy products are a major functional food group of growing scientific and commercial interest due to their nutritional value and bioactive “load”. A major fraction of the latter is attributed to milk’s rich protein content and its biofunctional peptides that occur naturally during digestion. On the basis of the identified proteome datasets of milk whey from sheep and goat breeds in Greece and feta cheese obtained during previous work, we applied an in silico workflow to predict and characterise the antimicrobial peptide content of these proteomes. We utilised existing tools for predicting peptide sequences with antimicrobial traits complemented by in silico protein cleavage modelling to identify frequently occurring antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract in humans. The peptides of interest were finally assessed for their stability with respect to their susceptibility to cleavage by endogenous proteases expressed along the intestinal part of the GI tract and ranked with respect to both their antimicrobial and stability scores. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Top-down Proteomics: In Memory of Dr. Alfred Yergey)
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