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Open AccessArticle

The Role of the Academic and Political Empowerment of Women in Economic, Social and Managerial Empowerment: The Case of Saudi Arabia

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College of Education, Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University, Al-Dilam 16213, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Marketing, College of Business Administration, Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University, Al-Kharj 11942, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Economics, Kafr Elshiekh University, Kafr Elshiekh 33511, Egypt
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Department of Finance, College of Business Administration, Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University, Al-Kharj 11942, Saudi Arabia
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College of Education, Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University, Al-Kharj 11942, Saudi Arabia
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Economies 2020, 8(2), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/economies8020045
Received: 13 April 2020 / Revised: 4 May 2020 / Accepted: 25 May 2020 / Published: 2 June 2020
Women may be considered to have hidden, unutilized potential for the economy and society, if not utilized at their full capacity, i.e., with effective educational, social and political policies. Allowing women to participate fully in an economy may contribute to the sustainable development of the country in question. The empowerment of women may be accelerated if women are educated for this purpose; as a result, the political authorities in Saudi Arabia have proposed a comprehensive framework to empower women. The empowerment of women is essential in the academic sector to develop educational policies for women’s capacity-building. The empowerment of women in the political process is also very important, so they can suggest appropriate policies, rules and laws that favor the empowerment of women in all sectors of the economy and society. The present research aims at testing the effects of academic and political empowerment on the economic, social and managerial empowerment of women, and opens a new horizon of debate in the practical and theoretical domain of female empowerment in Saudi Arabia. To this end, we utilized structural equation modeling due to the endogenous nature of relationships among the hypothesized variables. Perception-based data were collected on the political, academic, economic, social and managerial empowerment of women through a well-structured questionnaire. The data were collected during the period from October 2019 to January 2020 through a simple random sampling method. Then, we tested the direct effect of political empowerment, and its indirect effects through academic empowerment, on the economic, social and managerial empowerment of women. We found that political empowerment has a positive direct effect on economic and managerial empowerment, but an insignificant effect on social empowerment. Further, political empowerment has a positive direct effect on academic empowerment, which, in turn, has positive effects on economic, social and managerial female empowerment. Moreover, these indirect effects are found to be magnitudes larger than the direct effects of political empowerment. This study recommends improving the economic, social and political status of women through political and academic policies, to accelerate sustainable development. View Full-Text
Keywords: women’s empowerment; academic empowerment; social empowerment; economic empowerment; political empowerment; managerial empowerment women’s empowerment; academic empowerment; social empowerment; economic empowerment; political empowerment; managerial empowerment
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MDPI and ACS Style

Al-Qahtani, M.M.Z.; Alkhateeb, T.T.Y.; Mahmood, H.; Abdalla, M.A.Z.; Qaralleh, T.J.O.T. The Role of the Academic and Political Empowerment of Women in Economic, Social and Managerial Empowerment: The Case of Saudi Arabia. Economies 2020, 8, 45. https://doi.org/10.3390/economies8020045

AMA Style

Al-Qahtani MMZ, Alkhateeb TTY, Mahmood H, Abdalla MAZ, Qaralleh TJOT. The Role of the Academic and Political Empowerment of Women in Economic, Social and Managerial Empowerment: The Case of Saudi Arabia. Economies. 2020; 8(2):45. https://doi.org/10.3390/economies8020045

Chicago/Turabian Style

Al-Qahtani, Maleeha M.Z.; Alkhateeb, Tarek T.Y.; Mahmood, Haider; Abdalla, Manal A.Z.; Qaralleh, Thikkryat J.O.T. 2020. "The Role of the Academic and Political Empowerment of Women in Economic, Social and Managerial Empowerment: The Case of Saudi Arabia" Economies 8, no. 2: 45. https://doi.org/10.3390/economies8020045

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