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Pharmacy, Volume 3, Issue 4 (December 2015) – 16 articles , Pages 154-398

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Article
Family Commitment and Work Characteristics among Pharmacists
Pharmacy 2015, 3(4), 386-398; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy3040386 - 17 Dec 2015
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2199
Abstract
Factors associated with family commitment among pharmacists in the south central U.S. are explored. In 2010, a cross-sectional mailed self-administered 70 item survey of 363 active licensed pharmacists was conducted. This analysis includes only 269 (74%) participants who reported being married. Outcome measures [...] Read more.
Factors associated with family commitment among pharmacists in the south central U.S. are explored. In 2010, a cross-sectional mailed self-administered 70 item survey of 363 active licensed pharmacists was conducted. This analysis includes only 269 (74%) participants who reported being married. Outcome measures were family commitment (need for family commitment, spouse’s family commitment), work-related characteristics (work challenge, stress, workload, flexibility of work schedule), and job and career satisfaction. Married participants’ mean age was 48 (SD = 18) years; the male to female ratio was 1:1; 73% worked in retail settings and 199 (74%) completed the family commitment questions. Females reported a higher need for family commitment than males (p = 0.02) but there was no significant difference in satisfaction with the commitment. Work challenge and work load were significantly associated with higher need for family commitment (p < 0.01), when controlled for age, gender, number of dependents, work status, and practice setting. Higher work challenge was associated with higher career satisfaction. Higher job related stress was associated with lower job satisfaction. High work challenge and work load may negatively impact family function since married pharmacists would need higher family commitment from their counterparts. The impact of work-family interactions on pharmacy career satisfaction should be further investigated. Full article
Article
Stability of Fentanyl Citrate, Hydromorphone Hydrochloride, Ketamine Hydrochloride, Midazolam, Morphine Sulfate, and Pentobarbital Sodium in Polypropylene Syringes
Pharmacy 2015, 3(4), 379-385; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy3040379 - 16 Dec 2015
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3218
Abstract
Purpose: Determine the stability of fentanyl 10 mcg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride, fentanyl 10 mcg/mL in 5% dextrose, fentanyl 50 mcg/mL, hydromorphone 100 mcg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride, ketamine 10 mg/mL, midazolam 0.4 mg/mL in 5% dextrose, midazolam 5 mg/mL, morphine 1 mg/mL [...] Read more.
Purpose: Determine the stability of fentanyl 10 mcg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride, fentanyl 10 mcg/mL in 5% dextrose, fentanyl 50 mcg/mL, hydromorphone 100 mcg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride, ketamine 10 mg/mL, midazolam 0.4 mg/mL in 5% dextrose, midazolam 5 mg/mL, morphine 1 mg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride, morphine 1 mg/mL in 5% dextrose, and pentobarbital 50 mg/mL when stored as single drug entities at room temperature in polypropylene syringes. Methods: Four 5 mL samples of each drug and concentration were prepared in 10 mL polypropylene syringes. The samples were stored at ambient room temperature in a locked cabinet. Triplicate determinations of drug concentration for each sample were performed initially, on day 50 or 51, and on day 100 using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection. Results: With the exception of the hydromorphone 100 mcg/mL dilution, all compounds were found to contain greater than 95% of their initial concentration remaining at 100 days. Each sample remained clear and colorless when visually inspected. Full article
Brief Report
Health Literacy in Obstetric Patients: A Pharmacist’s Experience with The Newest Vital Sign
Pharmacy 2015, 3(4), 372-378; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy3040372 - 14 Dec 2015
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1965
Abstract
Health literacy can greatly impact patients’ self-management of medical conditions and adherence to treatment recommendations. This study aimed to assess the health literacy of obstetric patients at a university-based women’s clinic using the Newest Vital Sign (NVS). A clinical pharmacist or student pharmacist [...] Read more.
Health literacy can greatly impact patients’ self-management of medical conditions and adherence to treatment recommendations. This study aimed to assess the health literacy of obstetric patients at a university-based women’s clinic using the Newest Vital Sign (NVS). A clinical pharmacist or student pharmacist utilized the instrument to interview women during a routine clinic visit. This project is a cross-sectional, retrospective study using the de-identified survey data. Descriptive statistics were used to provide a summary of the NVS scores in this population. The average age of the 140 participants was 27 years (SD = 6) with the range from 16 to 49 years old. The majority (78%) of the patients was ≤ 30 years old; 50% were white and 39% were black. The average NVS score was 3 (SD = 2.2). 49% had scores ≤ 3 which indicates limited literacy. This pilot study yielded preliminary data for future investigations of health literacy in this population while identifying a potential role for pharmacists. Due to its ease of use and quick administration, it is feasible to use the NVS instrument to routinely screen health literacy in an obstetric clinic setting. Full article
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Article
Refer-To-Pharmacy: Pharmacy for the Next Generation Now! A Short Communication for Pharmacy
Pharmacy 2015, 3(4), 364-371; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy3040364 - 11 Dec 2015
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2769
Abstract
Refer-to-Pharmacy is the first fully integrated hospital to community pharmacy referral system. This article explains the importance of these referrals for patients and health economies to improve medicines optimisation, and how Refer-to-Pharmacy works in both hospital and community pharmacies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Community Pharmacy)
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Article
The Offering, Scheduling and Maintenance of Elective Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences
Pharmacy 2015, 3(4), 355-363; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy3040355 - 04 Dec 2015
Viewed by 1904
Abstract
The Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) provides standards for colleges of pharmacy to assist in the provision of pharmacy education to student pharmacists. An integral part of all college educational programs includes the provision of experiential learning. Experiential learning allows students to [...] Read more.
The Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) provides standards for colleges of pharmacy to assist in the provision of pharmacy education to student pharmacists. An integral part of all college educational programs includes the provision of experiential learning. Experiential learning allows students to gain real-world experience in direct patient care during completion of the curriculum. All college of pharmacy programs provide several Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences (APPEs), which include a balance between the four required experiences and a number of other required or elective APPEs. Required APPEs include advanced community, advanced institutional, ambulatory care, and general medicine. The elective APPEs include a myriad of opportunities to help provide a balanced education in experiential learning for student pharmacists. These unique opportunities help to expose student pharmacists to different career tracks that they may not have been able to experience otherwise. Not all colleges offer enough elective APPEs to enable the student pharmacist to obtain experiences in a defined area. Such an approach is required to produce skilled pharmacy graduates that are capable to enter practice in various settings. Elective APPEs are scheduled logically and are based upon student career interest and site availability. This article describes the offering, scheduling and maintenance of different elective APPEs offered by The University of Tennessee College of Pharmacy. Full article
Article
Perceived Stress, Stressors, and Coping Mechanisms among Doctor of Pharmacy Students
Pharmacy 2015, 3(4), 344-354; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy3040344 - 25 Nov 2015
Cited by 36 | Viewed by 5304
Abstract
The primary purpose of this study was to examine perceived stress in doctor of pharmacy students during their first, second, and third years of their program in a fully implemented new curriculum. The secondary objectives were to determine if there is a relationship [...] Read more.
The primary purpose of this study was to examine perceived stress in doctor of pharmacy students during their first, second, and third years of their program in a fully implemented new curriculum. The secondary objectives were to determine if there is a relationship between perceived stress and certain demographic variables, to compare student pharmacist perceived stress to the perceived stress in the general population, and to examine student reported stressors during pharmacy school and coping strategies employed for those stressors. A previously validated survey (Perceived Stress Scale-10) was given to first, second, and third year student pharmacists. Females exhibited higher mean stress scores than males. The under 22 years and over 32 years age categories exhibited higher mean stress scores than the 22 to 26 year old student population. There was no significant difference in perceived stress scores between classes of the program. Only a portion of the variation in stress scores was predicted by gender, age, marital status, race, and year in curriculum. Stress scores among these student pharmacists are higher overall than those in previously published probability samples in the general population. Class assignments and completing electronic portfolios were the top stressors reported. Spending time with family and friends was the most frequent coping mechanism reported. Programming related to stress reduction (particularly among female and nontraditional age students) appears warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Learning in Pharmacy)
Article
The Hidden Role of Community Pharmacy Technicians in Ensuring Patient Safety with the Use of E-Prescribing
Pharmacy 2015, 3(4), 330-343; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy3040330 - 25 Nov 2015
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3059
Abstract
Objectives: It has been reported that supportive personnel, such as pharmacy technicians, are key participants in the use of health information technology. The purpose of this study was to describe how pharmacy technicians use e-prescribing and to explore the characteristics of technicians that [...] Read more.
Objectives: It has been reported that supportive personnel, such as pharmacy technicians, are key participants in the use of health information technology. The purpose of this study was to describe how pharmacy technicians use e-prescribing and to explore the characteristics of technicians that support pharmacists in ensuring patient safety. Methods: This was a qualitative study that used observations, interviews, and focus groups to understand the role of pharmacy technicians in e-prescribing. Fourteen pharmacy technicians and 13 pharmacists from five community pharmacies participated. Observations lasted about nine hours in each pharmacy. Follow-up interviews and two separate focus groups were later conducted. Observation field notes and audio recordings were transcribed and thematically analyzed. Results: Pharmacy technicians were primarily responsible for all steps leading up to pharmacist review of the e-prescription and dispensing of medications to the patient. Technician characteristics, including experience, certification status, and knowledge of appropriate medication use, were reported as important factors in supporting a pharmacist’s role in ensuring patient safety with the use of e-prescribing. Conclusion: Study findings indicate that pharmacy technicians have an important role in supporting pharmacists to prevent medication errors. Certain characteristics of pharmacy technicians were identified with the potential to improve the e-prescription medication dispensing process and decrease patient harm through the identification and resolution of errors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Community Pharmacy)
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Article
The PHAR-QA Project: Competency Framework for Pharmacy Practice—First Steps, the Results of the European Network Delphi Round 1
Pharmacy 2015, 3(4), 307-329; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy3040307 - 17 Nov 2015
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3711
Abstract
PHAR-QA, funded by the European Commission, is producing a framework of competences for pharmacy practice. The framework is in line with the EU directive on sectoral professions and takes into account the diversity of the pharmacy profession and the on-going changes in healthcare [...] Read more.
PHAR-QA, funded by the European Commission, is producing a framework of competences for pharmacy practice. The framework is in line with the EU directive on sectoral professions and takes into account the diversity of the pharmacy profession and the on-going changes in healthcare systems (with an increasingly important role for pharmacists), and in the pharmaceutical industry. PHAR-QA is asking academia, students and practicing pharmacists to rank competences required for practice. The results show that competences in the areas of “drug interactions”, “need for drug treatment” and “provision of information and service” were ranked highest whereas those in the areas of “ability to design and conduct research” and “development and production of medicines” were ranked lower. For the latter two categories, industrial pharmacists ranked them higher than did the other five groups. Full article
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Article
Expectations do not Influence the Response to Phosphosdiesterase Type 5 Inhibitor Therapy for Erectile Dysfunction
Pharmacy 2015, 3(4), 295-306; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy3040295 - 16 Nov 2015
Viewed by 1969
Abstract
It has been reported that patients frequently discontinue treatment for erectile dysfunction (ED) with phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5Is) despite apparently good therapeutic results. Because expectations have been shown to affect patients’ appraisals of many drugs, the purpose of this study was to [...] Read more.
It has been reported that patients frequently discontinue treatment for erectile dysfunction (ED) with phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5Is) despite apparently good therapeutic results. Because expectations have been shown to affect patients’ appraisals of many drugs, the purpose of this study was to determine whether expectations affected the therapeutic response to PDE5Is in men with apparent psychogenic ED. An unvalidated questionnaire was used to collect data on expectations in 80 men commencing PDE5I therapy, and after three and six months of treatment. At the same time, subjects completed the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF), the Sexual Excitation/Inhibition Scale (SIS/SES) and Beck’s Depression Inventory (BDI). No evidence of an effect on expectations on changes in IIEF or BDI scores could be identified. Although changes in IIEF, and BDI scores from recruitment to three months were indicative of improved sexual function and less depression, scores for most items on the expectations scale decreased, suggesting that expectations were not being met. The items for which scores decreased were the expectation to be prescribed a drug, that the drug would restore the sexual function to normal, would work within 30 minutes of administration, improve patients confidence to engage in sexual activity, and that the medication was the best treatment for ED across the three data collection points. The findings of this study indicate that improvements in erectile function did not translate into changes in medication expectations that suggested user satisfaction. Full article
Concept Paper
An Algorithm to Identify Compounded Non-Sterile Products that Can Be Formulated on a Commercial Scale or Imported to Promote Safer Medication Use in Children
Pharmacy 2015, 3(4), 284-294; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy3040284 - 11 Nov 2015
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2645
Abstract
The lack of commercially-available pediatric drug products and dosage forms is well-known. A group of clinicians and scientists with a common interest in pediatric drug development and medicines-use systems developed a practical framework for identifying a list of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) with [...] Read more.
The lack of commercially-available pediatric drug products and dosage forms is well-known. A group of clinicians and scientists with a common interest in pediatric drug development and medicines-use systems developed a practical framework for identifying a list of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) with the greatest market potential for development to use in pediatric patients. Reliable and reproducible evidence-based drug formulations designed for use in pediatric patients are needed vitally, otherwise safe and consistent clinical practices and outcomes assessments will continue to be difficult to ascertain. Identification of a prioritized list of candidate APIs for oral formulation using the described algorithm provides a broader integrated clinical, scientific, regulatory, and market basis to allow for more reliable dosage forms and safer, effective medicines use in children of all ages. Group members derived a list of candidate API molecules by factoring in a number of pharmacotherapeutic, scientific, manufacturing, and regulatory variables into the selection algorithm that were absent in other rubrics. These additions will assist in identifying and categorizing prime API candidates suitable for oral formulation development. Moreover, the developed algorithm aids in prioritizing useful APIs with finished oral liquid dosage forms available from other countries with direct importation opportunities to North America and beyond. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacy Paediatrics)
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Article
Education Intervention on Chronotherapy for Final-Year Pharmacy Students
Pharmacy 2015, 3(4), 269-283; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy3040269 - 04 Nov 2015
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2631
Abstract
Chronotherapy involves altering the timing of medication administration in coordination with the body’s circadian rhythms to improve the overall control of disease and to minimise treatment side effects. Training on chronotherapy requires students to map different topics learnt in earlier years of their [...] Read more.
Chronotherapy involves altering the timing of medication administration in coordination with the body’s circadian rhythms to improve the overall control of disease and to minimise treatment side effects. Training on chronotherapy requires students to map different topics learnt in earlier years of their professional degree and apply these concepts clinically. This requires strategic educational design. Therefore, the aim of the study was to develop, implement and evaluate an educational intervention focusing on the application of chronotherapy for final-year undergraduate pharmacy students. An educational intervention utilizing multiple learning strategies for enhancing chronotherapy related awareness was designed and implemented in the final year undergraduate pharmacy cohort at the University of Sydney Australia (2013). A custom-designed questionnaire measuring awareness about (13 items scored 0 or 1), and attitudes (12 items scored on a Likert scale of 1–5) towards chronotherapy was administered pre and post intervention to evaluate its impact. The pre-intervention mean total awareness and attitude scores were 6.5 ± 2.0 (score range 0–13) and 47.4 ± 6.9 (score range 12–60) respectively. The mean total post-intervention scores were significantly higher for total awareness (10.1 ± 1.9) and attitude (54.0 ± 6.0). Carefully designed educational interventions utilising pedagogic principles for pharmacy students can improve awareness of and enhance positive attitudes toward pharmacists’ roles in optimizing drug therapy using chronotherapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Pharmacy)
Review
Posaconazole: An Update of Its Clinical Use
Pharmacy 2015, 3(4), 210-268; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy3040210 - 21 Oct 2015
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2829
Abstract
Posaconazole (PCZ) is a relatively new addition to the azole antifungals. It has fungicidal activities against Aspergillus fumigatus, Blastomyces dermatitidis, selected Candida species, Crytopcoccus neoformans, and Trichosporon. PCZ also has fungistatic activities against Candida, Coccidioides, selected Fusarium [...] Read more.
Posaconazole (PCZ) is a relatively new addition to the azole antifungals. It has fungicidal activities against Aspergillus fumigatus, Blastomyces dermatitidis, selected Candida species, Crytopcoccus neoformans, and Trichosporon. PCZ also has fungistatic activities against Candida, Coccidioides, selected Fusarium spp., Histoplasma, Scedosporium and Zygomycetes. In addition, combining the drug with caspofungin or amphotericin B results in a synergistic interaction against A. fumigatus, C. glabrata and C. neoformans. The absorption of PCZ suspension is enhanced when given with food, nutritional supplements, and carbonated beverages. Oral administration of PCZ in divided doses also increases its bioavailability. PCZ has a large volume of distribution and is highly protein bound (>95%). The main elimination route of PCZ is fecal. PCZ is an inhibitor of the CYP3A4 enzyme; therefore, monitoring for drug-drug interactions is warranted with other CYP3A4 substrates/inhibitors/inducers. The most common adverse effects include headache, fatigue, nausea, vomiting and elevated hepatic enzymes. PCZ, with its unique antifungal activities, expands the azole class of antifungal agents. Because of its limit in formulation, PCZ oral suspension is recommended in immunocompromised patients with functional gastrointestinaltracts who fail conventional antifungal therapies or who are suspected to have a breakthrough fungal infection. However, a delayed-release tablet formulation and intravenous (IV) injection became available in 2014, expanding the use of PCZ in other patient populations, including individuals who are unable to take oral formulations. Full article
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Article
Use of Etomidate for Rapid Sequence Intubation (RSI) in Pediatric Trauma Patients: An Exploratory National Survey
Pharmacy 2015, 3(4), 197-209; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy3040197 - 19 Oct 2015
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2685
Abstract
Objective, To survey the pediatric trauma programs to ascertain if and how etomidate is being used for rapid sequence intubation (RSI) in pediatric trauma patients. Design, A 25 question survey was created using REDCaps. A link to the survey was emailed [...] Read more.
Objective, To survey the pediatric trauma programs to ascertain if and how etomidate is being used for rapid sequence intubation (RSI) in pediatric trauma patients. Design, A 25 question survey was created using REDCaps. A link to the survey was emailed to each of the pediatric and adult trauma programs that care for pediatric patients. Setting, Pediatric trauma programs and adult trauma programs caring for pediatric patients. Intervention, None. Measurements and Main Results, A total of 16% of programs responded (40/247). The majority of the centers that responded are urban, academic, teaching Level 1 pediatric trauma centers that provide care for > 200 pediatric trauma patients annually. The trauma program directors were the most likely to respond to the survey (18/40). 33/38 respondents state they use etomidate in their RSI protocol but it is not used in all pediatric trauma patients. 26/38 respondents believe that etomidate is associated with adrenal suppression and 24/37 believe it exacerbates adrenal suppression in pediatric trauma patients yet 28 of 37 respondents do not believe it is clinically relevant. Conclusions, Based on the results of the survey, the use of etomidate in pediatric trauma patients is common among urban, academic, teaching, level 1 pediatric trauma centers. A prospective evaluation of etomidate use for RSI in pediatric trauma patients to evaluate is potential effects on adrenal suppression and hemodynamics is warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacy Paediatrics)
Article
Self-Reported Digital Literacy of the Pharmacy Workforce in North East Scotland
Pharmacy 2015, 3(4), 182-196; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy3040182 - 15 Oct 2015
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2966
Abstract
In their day-to-day practice, pharmacists, graduate (pre-registration) pharmacists, pharmacy technicians, dispensing assistants and medicines counter assistants use widely available office, retail and management information systems alongside dedicated pharmacy management and electronic health (ehealth) applications. The ability of pharmacy staff to use these applications [...] Read more.
In their day-to-day practice, pharmacists, graduate (pre-registration) pharmacists, pharmacy technicians, dispensing assistants and medicines counter assistants use widely available office, retail and management information systems alongside dedicated pharmacy management and electronic health (ehealth) applications. The ability of pharmacy staff to use these applications at home and at work, also known as digital literacy or digital competence or e-skills, depends on personal experience and related education and training. The aim of this research was to gain insight into the self-reported digital literacy of the pharmacy workforce in the North East of Scotland. A purposive case sample survey was conducted across NHS Grampian in the NE of Scotland. Data collection was based on five items: sex, age band, role, pharmacy experience plus a final question about self-reported digital literacy. The study was conducted between August 2012 and March 2013 in 17 community and two hospital pharmacies. With few exceptions, pharmacy staff perceived their own digital literacy to be at a basic level. Secondary outcome measures of role, age, gender and work experience were not found to be clear determinants of digital literacy. Pharmacy staff need to be more digitally literate to harness technologies in pharmacy practice more effectively and efficiently. Full article
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Article
Pharmacist and Physician Interpretation of Abbreviations for Acetaminophen Intended for Use in a Consumer Icon
Pharmacy 2015, 3(4), 169-181; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy3040169 - 15 Oct 2015
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3214
Abstract
Concomitant use of multiple acetaminophen medications is associated with overdose. To help patients identify acetaminophen medications and thus avoid concomitant use, an icon with an abbreviation for “acetaminophen” has been proposed for all acetaminophen medications. This study assessed pharmacists’ and physicians’ use and [...] Read more.
Concomitant use of multiple acetaminophen medications is associated with overdose. To help patients identify acetaminophen medications and thus avoid concomitant use, an icon with an abbreviation for “acetaminophen” has been proposed for all acetaminophen medications. This study assessed pharmacists’ and physicians’ use and interpretation of abbreviations for “acetaminophen”, to identify abbreviations with other meanings that might cause confusion. Physicians (n = 150) reported use and interpretation of candidate abbreviations Ac and Acm. Pharmacists (n = 150) interpretations of prescription orders using the candidate abbreviations APAP, Ac, Ace and Acm in typed, handwritten or spoken form, were judged for critical confusions likely to cause patient harm. Critical confusion was rare, except for omission by pharmacists of the acetaminophen dose for Hydrocodone/APAP prescriptions (10%). Ac was in common use to indicate “before meals”, and was interpreted as such, but some physicians (8%) said they use Ac to indicate anticoagulant drugs. Most pharmacists (54%) interpreted Ace as acetaminophen, and none interpreted it as referring to ACE-inhibitors. Acm was rarely used in prescriptions, had no common interfering meanings, and was often (63%) interpreted as acetaminophen, especially when prescribed in combination with an opiate (85%). The data validated concerns about abbreviations in prescribing: all abbreviations resulted in some misinterpretations. However, Acm was rarely misinterpreted, was readily associated with “acetaminophen”, and seemed appropriate for use in a graphic icon to help consumers/patients identify acetaminophen medications. Full article
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Article
Views of English Pharmacists on Providing Public Health Services
Pharmacy 2015, 3(4), 154-168; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy3040154 - 13 Oct 2015
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3100
Abstract
Locally-commissioned pharmacy public health services have developed in England over the last 20 years. Few studies have sought pharmacist views on commissioning and provision of public health services in general. This study sought views of community pharmacists (n = 778) in 16 [...] Read more.
Locally-commissioned pharmacy public health services have developed in England over the last 20 years. Few studies have sought pharmacist views on commissioning and provision of public health services in general. This study sought views of community pharmacists (n = 778) in 16 areas of England on services provided, decisions about services, support, promotion and future developments, using a postal questionnaire with two reminders. Response rate was 26.5% (206). Funded public health services provided most frequently were: emergency contraception (71%), smoking cessation (62%), and supervised drug consumption (58%). Blood pressure monitoring was provided by 61% and was considered to be one of the services pharmacists perceived as being most valued by customers, but was not National Health Services (NHS)-funded. Motivation for providing public health services was professional not financial, particularly from those working in independent pharmacies. Only 35% were personally involved in deciding which services to deliver, and fewer than 20% based decisions on local public health reports. Pharmacists had positive attitudes towards providing public health services, but mixed views on support for services and their promotion. Most thought services would increase in future, but were concerned about commissioning. Both national and local support is needed to ensure future commissioning of pharmacy public health services. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Community Pharmacy)
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