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Article

Sol–Gel Waveguide-Based Sensor for Structural Health Monitoring on Large Surfaces in Aerospace Domain

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Laboratoire H. Curien, UJM-CNRS-IOGS, Université de Saint-Etienne, 18 Rue Du Pr. Benoît Lauras, 42000 Saint-Etienne, France
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Photonfirst, Pyrietstraat 2, 1812 SC Alkmaar, The Netherlands
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Airbus, 316 Route De Bayonne, 31060 Toulouse, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Zhongqing Su
Aerospace 2021, 8(4), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace8040109
Received: 22 March 2021 / Revised: 7 April 2021 / Accepted: 12 April 2021 / Published: 14 April 2021
The potential of sol–gel-based optical sensors is investigated for applications in the aerospace domain. To this aim, a low-cost and non-intrusive sol–gel sensor based on waveguides, arranged as a 2D matrix structure, is fabricated by UV photolithography for delamination and damage detection. Two different organic–inorganic sol–gels were selected to fabricate the photonic device: TiO2–SiO2 and ZrO2–SiO2, acting as the waveguide core and the cladding, respectively. A systematic study was performed to determine the manufacturing parameters controlling their properties. The results show that large surfaces can be functionalized via sol–gel methods using the direct laser-writing approach. The structures are characterized in terms of refractive index, and the guiding properties were investigated through simulations and experiments, indicating an excellent behavior regarding the light guidance in a straight waveguide or in the 2D matrix structure grid. Additionally, preliminary tests show that the presence of impact can be easily detected after damage through the induced optical losses on large surfaces. This proof of concept sensor is a promising tool for structural health monitoring. To achieve the ultimate goal, the integration of this photonic sensor will be later performed on aircraft wings. View Full-Text
Keywords: sol–gel sensors; photolithography; direct writing technique; UV photopolymerization; damage sensing; structural health monitoring; aircraft wings sol–gel sensors; photolithography; direct writing technique; UV photopolymerization; damage sensing; structural health monitoring; aircraft wings
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MDPI and ACS Style

Royon, M.; Jamon, D.; Blanchet, T.; Royer, F.; Vocanson, F.; Marin, E.; Morana, A.; Boukenter, A.; Ouerdane, Y.; Jourlin, Y.; Evenblij, R.; Van Leest, T.; de Smet, M.-A.; Girard, S. Sol–Gel Waveguide-Based Sensor for Structural Health Monitoring on Large Surfaces in Aerospace Domain. Aerospace 2021, 8, 109. https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace8040109

AMA Style

Royon M, Jamon D, Blanchet T, Royer F, Vocanson F, Marin E, Morana A, Boukenter A, Ouerdane Y, Jourlin Y, Evenblij R, Van Leest T, de Smet M-A, Girard S. Sol–Gel Waveguide-Based Sensor for Structural Health Monitoring on Large Surfaces in Aerospace Domain. Aerospace. 2021; 8(4):109. https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace8040109

Chicago/Turabian Style

Royon, Maxime, Damien Jamon, Thomas Blanchet, François Royer, Francis Vocanson, Emmanuel Marin, Adriana Morana, Aziz Boukenter, Youcef Ouerdane, Yves Jourlin, Rolf Evenblij, Thijs Van Leest, Marie-Anne de Smet, and Sylvain Girard. 2021. "Sol–Gel Waveguide-Based Sensor for Structural Health Monitoring on Large Surfaces in Aerospace Domain" Aerospace 8, no. 4: 109. https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace8040109

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