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J. Sens. Actuator Netw., Volume 7, Issue 3 (September 2018)

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Open AccessArticle Hierarchical Growing Neural Gas Network (HGNG)-Based Semicooperative Feature Classifier for IDS in Vehicular Ad Hoc Network (VANET)
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2018, 7(3), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan7030041
Received: 8 August 2018 / Revised: 7 September 2018 / Accepted: 10 September 2018 / Published: 14 September 2018
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Abstract
In this research, new modeling strategy based hierarchical growing neural gas network (HGNG)-semicooperative for feature classifier of intrusion detection system (IDS) in a vehicular ad hoc network (VANET). The novel IDS mainly presents a new design feature for an extraction mechanism and a
[...] Read more.
In this research, new modeling strategy based hierarchical growing neural gas network (HGNG)-semicooperative for feature classifier of intrusion detection system (IDS) in a vehicular ad hoc network (VANET). The novel IDS mainly presents a new design feature for an extraction mechanism and a HGNG-based classifier. Firstly, the traffic flow features and vehicle location features were extracted in the VANET model. In order to effectively extract location features, a semicooperative feature extraction is used for collecting the current location information for the neighboring vehicles through a cooperative manner and the location features of the historical location information. Secondly, the HGNG-based classifier was designed for evaluating the IDS by using a hierarchy learning process without the limitation of the fix lattice topology. Finally, an additional two-step confirmation mechanism is used to accurately determine the abnormal vehicle messages. In the experiment, the proposed IDS system was evaluated, observed, and compared with the existing IDS. The proposed system performed a remarkable detection accuracy, stability, processing efficiency, and message load. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vehicle Networks: State-of-the-Art and Prospects)
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Open AccessArticle Modeling and Optimisation of a Solar Energy Harvesting System for Wireless Sensor Network Nodes
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2018, 7(3), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan7030040
Received: 29 June 2018 / Revised: 1 September 2018 / Accepted: 3 September 2018 / Published: 7 September 2018
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 669 | PDF Full-text (9490 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are the basic building blocks of today’s modern internet of Things (IoT) infrastructure in smart buildings, smart parking, and smart cities. The WSN nodes suffer from a major design constraint in that their battery energy is limited and
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The Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are the basic building blocks of today’s modern internet of Things (IoT) infrastructure in smart buildings, smart parking, and smart cities. The WSN nodes suffer from a major design constraint in that their battery energy is limited and can only work for a few days depending upon the duty cycle of operation. The main contribution of this research article is to propose an efficient solar energy harvesting solution to the limited battery energy problem of WSN nodes by utilizing ambient solar photovoltaic energy. Ideally, the Optimized Solar Energy Harvesting Wireless Sensor Network (SEH-WSN) nodes should operate for an infinite network lifetime (in years). In this paper, we propose a novel and efficient solar energy harvesting system with pulse width modulation (PWM) and maximum power point tracking (MPPT) for WSN nodes. The research focus is to increase the overall harvesting system efficiency, which further depends upon solar panel efficiency, PWM efficiency, and MPPT efficiency. Several models for solar energy harvester system have been designed and iterative simulations were performed in MATLAB/SIMULINK for solar powered DC-DC converters with PWM and MPPT to achieve optimum results. From the simulation results, it is shown that our designed solar energy harvesting system has 87% efficiency using PWM control and 96% efficiency ( η s y s ) by using the MPPT control technique. Finally, an experiment for PWM controlled SEH-WSN is performed using Scientech 2311 WSN trainer kit and a Generic LM2575 DC-DC buck converter based solar energy harvesting module for validation of simulation results. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Adapting Probabilistic Flooding in Energy Harvesting Wireless Sensor Networks
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2018, 7(3), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan7030039
Received: 16 July 2018 / Revised: 30 August 2018 / Accepted: 31 August 2018 / Published: 6 September 2018
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Abstract
Technological advantages in energy harvesting have been successfully applied in wireless sensor network environments, prolonging network’s lifetime, and, therefore, classical networking approaches like information dissemination need to be readdressed. More specifically, Probabilistic Flooding information dissemination is revisited in this work and it is
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Technological advantages in energy harvesting have been successfully applied in wireless sensor network environments, prolonging network’s lifetime, and, therefore, classical networking approaches like information dissemination need to be readdressed. More specifically, Probabilistic Flooding information dissemination is revisited in this work and it is observed that certain limitations arise due to the idiosyncrasies of nodes’ operation in energy harvesting network environments, resulting in reduced network coverage. In order to address this challenge, a modified version of Probabilistic Flooding is proposed, called Robust Probabilistic Flooding, which is capable of dealing with nodes of about to be exhausted batteries that resume their operation after ambient energy collection. In order to capture the behavior of the nodes’ operational states, a Markov chain model is also introduced and—based on certain observations and assumptions presented here—is subsequently simplified. Simulation results based on the proposed Markov chain model and a solar radiation dataset demonstrate the inefficiencies of Probabilistic Flooding and show that its enhanced version (i.e., Robust Probabilistic Flooding) is capable of fully covering the network on the expense of increased termination time in energy harvesting environments. Another advantage is that no extra overhead is introduced regarding the number of disseminated messages, thus not introducing any extra transmissions and therefore the consumed energy does not increase. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Performance Analysis of Maximum Likelihood Estimation for Transmit Power Based on Signal Strength Model
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2018, 7(3), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan7030038
Received: 5 July 2018 / Revised: 17 August 2018 / Accepted: 17 August 2018 / Published: 4 September 2018
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Abstract
We study theoretical performance of Maximum Likelihood (ML) estimation for transmit power of a primary node in a wireless network with cooperative receiver nodes. The condition that the consistence of an ML estimation via cooperative sensing can be guaranteed is firstly defined. Theoretical
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We study theoretical performance of Maximum Likelihood (ML) estimation for transmit power of a primary node in a wireless network with cooperative receiver nodes. The condition that the consistence of an ML estimation via cooperative sensing can be guaranteed is firstly defined. Theoretical analysis is conducted on the feasibility of the consistence condition regarding an ML function generated by independent yet not identically distributed random variables. Numerical experiments justify our theoretical discoveries. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Bring Your Own Reputation: A Feasible Trust System for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2018, 7(3), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan7030037
Received: 21 July 2018 / Revised: 14 August 2018 / Accepted: 23 August 2018 / Published: 1 September 2018
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Abstract
The establishment of trust in vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) will require the application of non-conventional measures of information security, such as reputation of the participants. The system proposed in this paper uses the concept of certified reputation, in which vehicles communicate providing
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The establishment of trust in vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) will require the application of non-conventional measures of information security, such as reputation of the participants. The system proposed in this paper uses the concept of certified reputation, in which vehicles communicate providing digital certificates that include their own reputation level. The vehicles periodically come in contact with certification and traffic control authorities to update their reputation levels, which are determined by the validation of their behavior on the network. Decision-making mechanisms in the receiver vehicles are responsible for evaluating whether the messages are true or false, based on the reputation of the communication nodes. The quantitative analysis of simulated scenarios showed the combination of the central reputation scheme with an appropriate vehicular decision mechanism achieved a total of correct decisions superior than without reputation systems. Considering the constraints of a high mobile network, the proposed system is a feasible way to reduce the risk of anomalous or malicious behavior in a vehicular network. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vehicle Networks: State-of-the-Art and Prospects)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Instrumented Wireless SmartInsole System for Mobile Gait Analysis: A Validation Pilot Study with Tekscan Strideway
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2018, 7(3), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan7030036
Received: 30 June 2018 / Revised: 13 August 2018 / Accepted: 15 August 2018 / Published: 20 August 2018
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Abstract
A SmartInsoles Cyber-Physical System (CPS) is designed and implemented for the purpose of measuring gait parameters of multiple users in a restriction-free environment. This CPS comprises a master software installed on a computer and numerous multi-sensory health devices in the form of smart
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A SmartInsoles Cyber-Physical System (CPS) is designed and implemented for the purpose of measuring gait parameters of multiple users in a restriction-free environment. This CPS comprises a master software installed on a computer and numerous multi-sensory health devices in the form of smart insoles. Each of these insoles contains 12 Force-Sensitive Resistor (FSR) sensors, an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), a WiFi-enabled microcontroller and a battery to power all components. A validation pilot study was completed in collaboration with the Interdisciplinary School of Health Sciences at the University of Ottawa by performing 150 trials on 15 healthy subjects. Each subject performed 10 walks on the Tekscan Strideway gait mat system, while simultaneously wearing the designed SmartInsoles CPS. Spatiotemporal data for over 450 unique steps were collected by both systems. These data were analyzed carefully, and a thorough comparison was performed between the results from the two systems. Seven parameters were analyzed in this study: stride time, stance time, swing time, double support time, step time, cadence and gait time. Detailed results in the form of tables, scatterplots, histograms and Bland–Altman graphs were generated. Analysis of the results shows high agreement between the values of the two systems and suggests high accuracy of the implemented CPS as a multi-device, multi-sensory system for gait measurement and analysis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Improving Animal-Human Cohabitation with Machine Learning in Fiber-Wireless Networks
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2018, 7(3), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan7030035
Received: 15 June 2018 / Accepted: 26 July 2018 / Published: 9 August 2018
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Abstract
In this paper, we investigate an animal-human cohabitation problem with the help of machine learning and fiber-wireless (FiWi) access networks integrating cloud and edge (fog) computing. We propose an early warning system which detects wild animals near the road/rail with the help of
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In this paper, we investigate an animal-human cohabitation problem with the help of machine learning and fiber-wireless (FiWi) access networks integrating cloud and edge (fog) computing. We propose an early warning system which detects wild animals near the road/rail with the help of wireless sensor networks and alerts passing vehicles of possible animal crossing. Additionally, we show that animals’ detection at the earliest and the related processing, if possible, at sensors would reduce the energy consumption of edge devices and the end-to-end delay in notifying vehicles, as compared to the scenarios where raw sensed data needs to be transferred up the base stations or the cloud. At the same time, machine learning helps in classification of captured images at edge devices, and in predicting different time-varying traffic profiles— distinguished by latency and bandwidth requirements—at base stations, including animal appearance events at sensors, and allocating bandwidth in FiWi access networks accordingly. We compare three scenarios of processing data at sensor nodes, base stations and a hybrid case of processing sensed data at either sensors or at base stations, and showed that dynamic allocation of bandwidth in FiWi access networks and processing data at its origin lead to lowering the congestion of network traffic at base stations and reducing the average end-to-end delay. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Enif-Lang: A Specialized Language for Programming Network Functions on Commodity Hardware
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2018, 7(3), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan7030034
Received: 30 June 2018 / Revised: 26 July 2018 / Accepted: 3 August 2018 / Published: 7 August 2018
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Abstract
The maturity level reached by today’s commodity platforms makes even low-cost PCs viable alternatives to dedicated hardware to implement real network functions without sacrificing performance. Indeed, the availability of multi-core processing packages and multi-queue network interfaces that can be managed by accelerated I/O
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The maturity level reached by today’s commodity platforms makes even low-cost PCs viable alternatives to dedicated hardware to implement real network functions without sacrificing performance. Indeed, the availability of multi-core processing packages and multi-queue network interfaces that can be managed by accelerated I/O frameworks, provides off-the-shelf servers with the necessary power capability for running a broad variety of network applications with near hardware-class performance. At the same time, the introduction of the Software Defined Networks (SDN) and the Network Functions Virtualization (NFV) paradigms call for new programming abstractions and tools to allow this new class of network devices to be flexibly configured and functionally repurposed from the network control plane. The paper presents the ongoing work towards Enif-Lang (Enhanced Network processIng Functional Language), a functional language for programming network functions over generic middleboxes running the Linux operating system. The language addresses concurrent programming by design and is targeted at developing simple stand-alone applications as well as pre-processing stages of packet elaborations. Enif-Lang is implemented as a Domain Specific Language embedded in the Haskell language and inherits the main principles of its ancestor, including the strong typedness and the concept of function compositions. Complex network functions are implemented by composing a set of elementary operations (primitives) by means of a compact yet expressive language grammar. Throughout the paper, the description of the design principles and features of Enif-Lang are accompanied by examples and use cases. In addition, a preliminary performance assessment is carried out to prove the effectiveness of the language for developing practical applications with the performance level required by 5G systems and the Tactile Internet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Softwarization at the Network Edge for the Tactile Internet)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Software Defined Networks in Industrial Automation
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2018, 7(3), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan7030033
Received: 8 June 2018 / Revised: 2 August 2018 / Accepted: 2 August 2018 / Published: 6 August 2018
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Abstract
Trends such as the Industrial Internet of Things and Industry 4.0 have increased the need to use new and innovative network technologies in industrial automation. The growth of industrial automation communications is an outcome of the shift to harness the productivity and efficiency
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Trends such as the Industrial Internet of Things and Industry 4.0 have increased the need to use new and innovative network technologies in industrial automation. The growth of industrial automation communications is an outcome of the shift to harness the productivity and efficiency of manufacturing and process automation with a minimum of human intervention. Due to the ongoing evolution of industrial networks from Fieldbus technologies to Ethernet, a new opportunity has emerged to harness the benefits of Software Defined Networking (SDN). In this paper, we provide a brief overview of SDN in the industrial automation domain and propose a network architecture called the Software Defined Industrial Automation Network (SDIAN), with the objective of improving network scalability and efficiency. To match the specific considerations and requirements of having a deterministic system in an industrial network, we propose two solutions for flow creation: the Pro-active Flow Installation Scheme and the Hybrid Flow Installation Scheme. We analytically quantify the proposed solutions that alleviate the overhead incurred from the flow setup. The analytical model is verified using Monte Carlo simulations. We also evaluate the SDIAN architecture and analyze the network performance of the modified topology using the Mininet emulator. We further list and motivate SDIAN features and report on an experimental food processing plant demonstration featuring Raspberry Pi as a software-defined controller instead of traditional proprietary Programmable Logic Controllers. Our demonstration exemplifies the characteristics of SDIAN. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Softwarization at the Network Edge for the Tactile Internet)
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Open AccessArticle Outage Analysis of Distributed Antenna Systems in a Composite Fading Channel with Correlated Shadowing
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2018, 7(3), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan7030032
Received: 18 July 2018 / Accepted: 1 August 2018 / Published: 3 August 2018
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Abstract
Distributed antenna systems (DASs) are known to be effective to enhance coverage, spectral efficiency, and reliability in mobile communication systems. Because multiple antennas are physically separated in space, DASs benefit from both micro- and macro-diversity, which makes DASs significantly more robust compared to
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Distributed antenna systems (DASs) are known to be effective to enhance coverage, spectral efficiency, and reliability in mobile communication systems. Because multiple antennas are physically separated in space, DASs benefit from both micro- and macro-diversity, which makes DASs significantly more robust compared to conventional co-located antenna systems in fading channels. However, when multiple antennas are not dispersed enough, there exists a certain degree of correlation in large-scale fading (shadowing), which degrades the macro-diversity gain. In practice, various measurements indicate a high degree of correlation of shadowing in DASs. However, most of the previous studies on DASs have not considered the correlated shadowing and its corresponding performance loss. Motivated by this limitation, we analyze the impact of the correlated shadowing to better evaluate DAS-based schemes with dual diversity transmitters. Assuming that shadowing correlation is an exponentially decreasing function of the inter-element separation, we derive the outage probability of DAS in composite Rayleigh-lognormal shadowing channels. Also, we present numerical and simulation results, which indicate there exists an optimal inter-separation between antennas that minimizes the outage rate to balance a trade-off between macro-diversity and path loss. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mobile and Wireless Networks)
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Open AccessArticle Activity Recognition Using Gazed Text and Viewpoint Information for User Support Systems
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2018, 7(3), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan7030031
Received: 30 June 2018 / Revised: 29 July 2018 / Accepted: 31 July 2018 / Published: 2 August 2018
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Abstract
The development of information technology has added many conveniences to our lives. On the other hand, however, we have to deal with various kinds of information, which can be a difficult task for elderly people or those who are not familiar with information
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The development of information technology has added many conveniences to our lives. On the other hand, however, we have to deal with various kinds of information, which can be a difficult task for elderly people or those who are not familiar with information devices. A technology to recognize each person’s activity and providing appropriate support based on that activity could be useful for such people. In this paper, we propose a novel fine-grained activity recognition method for user support systems that focuses on identifying the text at which a user is gazing, based on the idea that the content of the text is related to the activity of the user. It is necessary to keep in mind that the meaning of the text depends on its location. To tackle this problem, we propose the simultaneous use of a wearable device and fixed camera. To obtain the global location of the text, we perform image matching using the local features of the images obtained by these two devices. Then, we generate a feature vector based on this information and the content of the text. To show the effectiveness of the proposed approach, we performed activity recognition experiments with six subjects in a laboratory environment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Prototyping and Validation of MEMS Accelerometers for Structural Health Monitoring—The Case Study of the Pietratagliata Cable-Stayed Bridge
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2018, 7(3), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan7030030
Received: 23 June 2018 / Revised: 16 July 2018 / Accepted: 24 July 2018 / Published: 27 July 2018
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Abstract
In recent years, thanks to the simple and yet efficient design, Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) accelerometers have proven to offer a suitable solution for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) in civil engineering applications. Such devices are typically characterised by high portability and durability, as
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In recent years, thanks to the simple and yet efficient design, Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) accelerometers have proven to offer a suitable solution for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) in civil engineering applications. Such devices are typically characterised by high portability and durability, as well as limited cost, hence resulting in ideal tools for applications in buildings and infrastructure. In this paper, original self-made MEMS sensor prototypes are presented and validated on the basis of preliminary laboratory tests (shaking table experiments and noise level measurements). Based on the well promising preliminary outcomes, their possible application for the dynamic identification of existing, full-scale structural assemblies is then discussed, giving evidence of their potential via comparative calculations towards past literature results, inclusive of both on-site, Experimental Modal Analysis (EMA) and Finite Element Analytical estimations (FEA). The full-scale experimental validation of MEMS accelerometers, in particular, is performed using, as a case study, the cable-stayed bridge in Pietratagliata (Italy). Dynamic results summarised in the paper demonstrate the high capability of MEMS accelerometers, with evidence of rather stable and reliable predictions, and suggest their feasibility and potential for SHM purposes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Trajectory-Assisted Municipal Agent Mobility: A Sensor-Driven Smart Waste Management System
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2018, 7(3), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan7030029
Received: 12 June 2018 / Revised: 12 July 2018 / Accepted: 19 July 2018 / Published: 21 July 2018
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Abstract
Ubiquity, heterogeneity and dense deployment of sensors have yielded the Internet of Things (IoT) concept, which is an integral component of various smart spaces including smart cities. Applications and services in a smart city ecosystem aim at minimizing the cost and maximizing the
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Ubiquity, heterogeneity and dense deployment of sensors have yielded the Internet of Things (IoT) concept, which is an integral component of various smart spaces including smart cities. Applications and services in a smart city ecosystem aim at minimizing the cost and maximizing the quality of living. Among these services, waste management is a unique service that covers both aspects. To this end, in this paper, we propose a WSN-driven system for smart waste management in urban areas. In our proposed framework, the waste bins are equipped with sensors that continuously monitor the waste level and trigger alarms that are wirelessly communicated to a cloud platform to actuate the municipal agents, i.e., waste collection trucks. We formulate an Integer Linear Programming (ILP) model to find the best set of trajectory-truck with the objectives of minimum cost or minimum delay. In order for the trajectory assistance to work in real time, we propose three heuristics, one of which is a greedy one. Through simulations, we show that the ILP formulation can provide a baseline reference to the heuristics, whereas the non-greedy heuristics can significantly outperform the greedy approach regarding cost and delay under moderate waste accumulation scenarios. Full article
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Open AccessReview Security Vulnerabilities in Bluetooth Technology as Used in IoT
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2018, 7(3), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan7030028
Received: 24 April 2018 / Revised: 15 June 2018 / Accepted: 12 July 2018 / Published: 19 July 2018
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Abstract
Bluetooth technology is a key component of wireless communications. It provides a low-energy and low-cost solution for short-range radio transmissions. Bluetooth, more specifically Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) has become the predominant technology for connecting IoT (Internet of Things). It can be found in
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Bluetooth technology is a key component of wireless communications. It provides a low-energy and low-cost solution for short-range radio transmissions. Bluetooth, more specifically Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) has become the predominant technology for connecting IoT (Internet of Things). It can be found in cell phones, headsets, speakers, printers, keyboards, automobiles, children’s toys, and medical devices, as well as many other devices. The technology can also be found in automated smart homes, to provide monitors and controls for lights, thermostats, door locks, appliances, security systems, and cameras. Bluetooth offers convenience and ease of use, but it lacks a centralized security infrastructure. As a result, it has serious security vulnerabilities, and the need for awareness of the security risks are increasing as the technology becomes more widespread. This paper presents an overview of Bluetooth technology in IoT including its security, vulnerabilities, threats, and risk mitigation solutions, as well as real-life examples of exploits. Our study highlights the importance of understanding attack risks and mitigation techniques involved with using Bluetooth technology on our devices. Real-life examples of recent Bluetooth exploits are presented. Several recommended security measures are discussed to secure Bluetooth communication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors and Actuators: Security Threats and Countermeasures)
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Open AccessArticle Priority-Based Machine-To-Machine Overlay Network over LTE for a Smart City
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2018, 7(3), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan7030027
Received: 27 April 2018 / Revised: 6 July 2018 / Accepted: 10 July 2018 / Published: 12 July 2018
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Abstract
Long-Term Evolution (LTE) and its improvement, Long-Term Evolution-Advanced (LTE-A), are attractive choices for Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communication due to their ubiquitous coverage and high bandwidth. However, the focus of LTE design was high performance connection-based communications between human-operated devices (also known as human-to-human, or
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Long-Term Evolution (LTE) and its improvement, Long-Term Evolution-Advanced (LTE-A), are attractive choices for Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communication due to their ubiquitous coverage and high bandwidth. However, the focus of LTE design was high performance connection-based communications between human-operated devices (also known as human-to-human, or H2H traffic), which was initially established over the Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH). On the other hand, M2M traffic is mostly based on contention-based transmission of short messages and does not need connection establishment. As a result, M2M traffic transmitted over LTE PRACH has to use the inefficient four-way handshake and compete for resources with H2H traffic. When a large number of M2M devices attempts to access the PRACH, an outage condition may occur; furthermore, traffic prioritization is regulated only through age-based power ramping, which drives the network even faster towards the outage condition. In this article, we describe an overlay network that allows a massive number of M2M devices to coexist with H2H traffic and access the network without going through the full LTE handshake. The overlay network is patterned after IEEE 802.15.6 to support multiple priority classes of M2M traffic. We analyse the performance of the joint M2M and H2H system and investigate the trade-offs needed to keep satisfactory performance and reliability for M2M traffic in the presence of H2H traffic of known intensity. Our results confirm the validity of this approach for applications in crowd sensing, monitoring and others utilized in smart city development. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Primary User Emulation Attacks: A Detection Technique Based on Kalman Filter
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2018, 7(3), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan7030026
Received: 18 April 2018 / Revised: 13 June 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 4 July 2018
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Abstract
Cognitive radio technology addresses the problem of spectrum scarcity by allowing secondary users to use the vacant spectrum bands without causing interference to the primary users. However, several attacks could disturb the normal functioning of the cognitive radio network. Primary user emulation attacks
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Cognitive radio technology addresses the problem of spectrum scarcity by allowing secondary users to use the vacant spectrum bands without causing interference to the primary users. However, several attacks could disturb the normal functioning of the cognitive radio network. Primary user emulation attacks are one of the most severe attacks in which a malicious user emulates the primary user signal characteristics to either prevent other legitimate secondary users from accessing the idle channels or causing harmful interference to the primary users. There are several proposed approaches to detect the primary user emulation attackers. However, most of these techniques assume that the primary user location is fixed, which does not make them valid when the primary user is mobile. In this paper, we propose a new approach based on the Kalman filter framework for detecting the primary user emulation attacks with a non-stationary primary user. Several experiments have been conducted and the advantages of the proposed approach are demonstrated through the simulation results. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Fundamental Limitations in Energy Detection for Spectrum Sensing
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2018, 7(3), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan7030025
Received: 15 May 2018 / Revised: 27 June 2018 / Accepted: 27 June 2018 / Published: 28 June 2018
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Abstract
A key enabler for Cognitive Radio (CR) is spectrum sensing, which is physically implemented by sensor and actuator networks typically using the popular energy detection method. The threshold of the binary hypothesis for energy detection is generally determined by using the principles of
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A key enabler for Cognitive Radio (CR) is spectrum sensing, which is physically implemented by sensor and actuator networks typically using the popular energy detection method. The threshold of the binary hypothesis for energy detection is generally determined by using the principles of constant false alarm rate (CFAR) or constant detection rate (CDR). The CDR principle guarantees the CR primary users at a designated low level of interferences, which is nonetheless subject to low spectrum usability of secondary users in a given sensing latency. On the other hand, the CFAR principle ensures secondary users’ spectrum utilization at a designated high level, while may nonetheless lead to a high level of interference to the primary users. The paper introduces a novel framework of energy detection for CR spectrum sensing, aiming to initiate a graceful compromise between the two reported principles. The proposed framework takes advantage of the summation of the false alarm probability Pfa from CFAR and the missed detection probability (1Pd) from CDR, which is further compared with a predetermined confidence level. Optimization presentations for the proposed framework to determine some key parameters are developed and analyzed. We identify two fundamental limitations that appear in spectrum sensing, which further define the relationship among the sample data size for detection, detection time, and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). We claim that the proposed framework of energy detection yields merits in practical policymaking for detection time and design sample rate on specific channels to achieve better efficiency and less interferences. Full article
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