Next Article in Journal
Security Vulnerabilities in Bluetooth Technology as Used in IoT
Next Article in Special Issue
Trajectory-Assisted Municipal Agent Mobility: A Sensor-Driven Smart Waste Management System
Previous Article in Journal
Primary User Emulation Attacks: A Detection Technique Based on Kalman Filter
Previous Article in Special Issue
Designing and Managing a Smart Parking System Using Wireless Sensor Networks
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2018, 7(3), 27;

Priority-Based Machine-To-Machine Overlay Network over LTE for a Smart City

Department of Computer Science, Ryerson University, Toronto, ON M5B 2K3, Canada
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Received: 27 April 2018 / Revised: 6 July 2018 / Accepted: 10 July 2018 / Published: 12 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks for Smart Cities)
PDF [2299 KB, uploaded 12 July 2018]


Long-Term Evolution (LTE) and its improvement, Long-Term Evolution-Advanced (LTE-A), are attractive choices for Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communication due to their ubiquitous coverage and high bandwidth. However, the focus of LTE design was high performance connection-based communications between human-operated devices (also known as human-to-human, or H2H traffic), which was initially established over the Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH). On the other hand, M2M traffic is mostly based on contention-based transmission of short messages and does not need connection establishment. As a result, M2M traffic transmitted over LTE PRACH has to use the inefficient four-way handshake and compete for resources with H2H traffic. When a large number of M2M devices attempts to access the PRACH, an outage condition may occur; furthermore, traffic prioritization is regulated only through age-based power ramping, which drives the network even faster towards the outage condition. In this article, we describe an overlay network that allows a massive number of M2M devices to coexist with H2H traffic and access the network without going through the full LTE handshake. The overlay network is patterned after IEEE 802.15.6 to support multiple priority classes of M2M traffic. We analyse the performance of the joint M2M and H2H system and investigate the trade-offs needed to keep satisfactory performance and reliability for M2M traffic in the presence of H2H traffic of known intensity. Our results confirm the validity of this approach for applications in crowd sensing, monitoring and others utilized in smart city development. View Full-Text
Keywords: LTE; RACH; PRACH; IEEE 802.15.4; IEEE 802.15.6; non-saturation operating regime; backoff error; smart city LTE; RACH; PRACH; IEEE 802.15.4; IEEE 802.15.6; non-saturation operating regime; backoff error; smart city

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Khan, N.; Mišić, J.; Mišić, V.B. Priority-Based Machine-To-Machine Overlay Network over LTE for a Smart City. J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2018, 7, 27.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. EISSN 2224-2708 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top