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Plants 2016, 5(2), 28;

The Occurrence of Flavonoids and Related Compounds in Flower Sections of Papaver nudicaule

Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology, Hans-Knöll-Straße 8, 07745 Jena, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ulrike Mathesius
Received: 27 April 2016 / Revised: 9 June 2016 / Accepted: 16 June 2016 / Published: 22 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Flavonoids)
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Flavonoids play an important role in the pigmentation of flowers; in addition, they protect petals and other flower parts from UV irradiation and oxidative stress. Nudicaulins, flavonoid-derived indole alkaloids, along with pelargonidin, kaempferol, and gossypetin glycosides, are responsible for the color of white, red, orange, and yellow petals of different Papaver nudicaule cultivars. The color of the petals is essential to attract pollinators. We investigated the occurrence of flavonoids in basal and apical petal areas, stamens, and capsules of four differently colored P. nudicaule cultivars by means of chromatographic and spectroscopic methods. The results reveal the specific occurrence of gossypetin glycosides in the basal spot of all cultivars and demonstrate that kaempferol glycosides are the major secondary metabolites in the capsules. Unlike previous reports, the yellow-colored stamens of all four P. nudicaule cultivars are shown to contain not nudicaulins but carotenoids. In addition, the presence of nudicaulins, pelargonidin, and kaempferol glycosides in the apical petal area was confirmed. The flavonoids and related compounds in the investigated flower parts and cultivars of P. nudicaule are profiled, and their potential ecological role is discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: flower pigmentation; flavonoids; kaempferol; pelargonidin; nudicaulins; Papaver nudicaule flower pigmentation; flavonoids; kaempferol; pelargonidin; nudicaulins; Papaver nudicaule

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Dudek, B.; Warskulat, A.-C.; Schneider, B. The Occurrence of Flavonoids and Related Compounds in Flower Sections of Papaver nudicaule. Plants 2016, 5, 28.

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