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Unanswered Questions Regarding Sex and BMP/TGF-β Signaling

Rutgers—New Jersey Medical School, Microbiology, Biochemistry, & Molecular Genetics, Newark, NJ 07103, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Samuel J. Pleasure
J. Dev. Biol. 2018, 6(2), 14;
Received: 11 May 2018 / Revised: 2 June 2018 / Accepted: 14 June 2018 / Published: 16 June 2018
Crosstalk between the BMP and TGF-β signaling pathways regulates many complex developmental processes from the earliest stages of embryogenesis throughout adult life. In many situations, the two signaling pathways act reciprocally. For example, TGF-β signaling is generally pro-fibrotic, whereas BMP signaling is anti-fibrotic and pro-calcific. Sex-specific differences occur in many diseases including cardiovascular pathologies. Differing ratios of fibrosis and calcification in stenotic valves suggests that BMP/TGF-β signaling may vary in men and women. In this review, we focus on the current understanding of the interplay between sex and BMP/TGF-β signaling and pose several unanswered questions. View Full-Text
Keywords: BMP; TGF-β; signaling; sex; chromosomes; XIST; genomic imprinting; hormones; fibrosis BMP; TGF-β; signaling; sex; chromosomes; XIST; genomic imprinting; hormones; fibrosis
MDPI and ACS Style

Shah, T.A.; Rogers, M.B. Unanswered Questions Regarding Sex and BMP/TGF-β Signaling. J. Dev. Biol. 2018, 6, 14.

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