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J. Dev. Biol. 2013, 1(2), 126-140; doi:10.3390/jdb1020126
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Left-Right Asymmetrical Development of the Proepicardium

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Received: 30 May 2013 / Revised: 15 July 2013 / Accepted: 22 July 2013 / Published: 26 July 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epicardial Development and Cardiovascular Disease)
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Abstract

The proepicardium (PE) is a cluster of cells that forms on the cardiac inflow tract and gives rise to the epicardium and connective tissue and largely contributes to the coronary vasculature. In many vertebrates, the PE undergoes left-right asymmetrical development. While PE cells and marker genes can be initially found on both sides, only the right-sided PE will fully develop and ultimately deliver cells to the heart. Several signalling inputs, like FGF and BMP signals, are involved in PE induction in the lateral plate mesoderm, as well as during inflow tract formation and, also, control asymmetric PE development. These signalling events will be put into the context of embryonic left-right asymmetry determination. Finally, it will be discussed whether PE development may serve as a readout for asymmetric inflow tract morphogenesis.
Keywords: chicken embryo; FGF8; SNAI1; PITX2; TBX18; WT1; inflow tract; sinus venosus chicken embryo; FGF8; SNAI1; PITX2; TBX18; WT1; inflow tract; sinus venosus
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Schlueter, J.; Brand, T. Left-Right Asymmetrical Development of the Proepicardium. J. Dev. Biol. 2013, 1, 126-140.

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