Investigating the spatial distribution of urban forest biomass and its potential influencing factors would provide useful insights for configuring urban greenspace. Although China is experiencing an unprecedented scale of urbanization, the spatial pattern of the urban forest biomass distribution as a critical component in the urban landscape has not been fully examined. Using the geographic detector method, this research examines the impacts of four geographical factors (GFs)—dominant tree species, forest categories, land types, and age groups—on the aboveground biomass distribution of urban forests in 1480 plots in Xi’an, China. The results indicate that (1) the aboveground biomass and four GFs show obvious heterogeneity regarding their spatial distribution in Xi’an; (2) the dominant tree species and age group which impacts the patterns of aboveground biomass are the primary GFs, with the independent q value (a statistic metric used to quantify the impacts of GFs in this study) reaching 0.595 and 0.202, respectively, while the forest category and land type were weakly linked to the spatial variation of aboveground biomass, with a q value of 0.087 and 0.076, respectively; and (3) the interactions among these four GFs also tend to contribute to the distribution pattern of aboveground biomass. The interactions between GFs achieved a larger impact than the sum of impacts that were independently obtained from the factors. Our results showed that the method of using a geographical detector is a useful tool in the urban area, and can reveal the driver pattern of aboveground biomass and provide a reference for city planning and management.
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