# Coupling Degree between the Demand and Supply of Bus Services at Stops: A Density-Based Approach

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Literature Review

## 3. Study Area and Data

#### 3.1. Study Area

#### 3.2. Data Collection and Preprocessing

## 4. Methodology

#### 4.1. Generating the Density of Jobs-Housing Locations

#### 4.2. Detecting the Spatial Relationship between Demand and Supply

#### 4.3. Coupling Degree Index (CDI)

## 5. Results

#### 5.1. Spatial Patterns of the Demand and Supply of Bus Services

#### 5.2. Spatial Association between Demand and Supply at Bus Stops

#### 5.3. Identifying Bus Stops with Dismatched Demand and Supply

#### 5.4. Coupling Degree Index of Each Bus Stop

_{1}= −0.8, C

_{2}= −0.2, C

_{3}= 0.2, and C

_{4}= 0.8 are selected to subdivide the classification results of the Moran scatterplot (shown in Figure 7a). In total, four CDI values actually make six value intervals which are [−1, −0.8), [−0.8, −0.2), [−0.2, 0), [0, 0.2), [0.2, 0.8), and [0.8, 1]. However, according to the actual meaning, we merge the intervals [−0.2, 0) and [0, 0.2) together. In total, five value intervals are name as Class I, Class II, Class III, Class IV, and Class V (corresponding to the I, II, III, IV, V regions of the Figure 7a and indicating the coupling degree are bad, relatively bad, not that good, relatively good, and good, respectively). Figure 7b shows the corresponding bus stops subdivided results.

## 6. Discussion

## 7. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 4.**Moran scatterplot and corresponding classification results of bus stops. (

**a**) Moran scatterplot of the jobs-housing activity distribution and bus services distribution; (

**b**) Classification results of bus stops based on the Moran scatterplot.

**Figure 5.**Local spatial clusters of bus stops based on two significance filters. (

**a**) A significance level of 0.1; (

**b**) A significance level of 0.01.

**Figure 6.**A visual representative method combining the Moran scatterplot and CDI. (

**a**) Overview; (

**b**) Front view; (

**c**) Right view; (

**d**) Top view. “①”—Moran scatterplot.

**Figure 7.**The CDI subclassification results. (

**a**) The subclassification result for Moran scatterplot (

**b**) The cor-responding subclassification results of bus stops.

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Li, B.; Huang, Z.; Xia, J.; Li, W.; Zhang, Y.
Coupling Degree between the Demand and Supply of Bus Services at Stops: A Density-Based Approach. *ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf.* **2021**, *10*, 173.
https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi10030173

**AMA Style**

Li B, Huang Z, Xia J, Li W, Zhang Y.
Coupling Degree between the Demand and Supply of Bus Services at Stops: A Density-Based Approach. *ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information*. 2021; 10(3):173.
https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi10030173

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Li, Bowen, Zhengdong Huang, Jizhe Xia, Wenshu Li, and Ying Zhang.
2021. "Coupling Degree between the Demand and Supply of Bus Services at Stops: A Density-Based Approach" *ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information* 10, no. 3: 173.
https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi10030173