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Article

Single-Cellular Biological Effects of Cholesterol-Catabolic Bile Acid-Based Nano/Micro Capsules as Anti-Inflammatory Cell Protective Systems

1
The Biotechnology and Drug Development Research Laboratory, Curtin Medical School & Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Bentley, Perth, WA 6102, Australia
2
Hearing Therapeutics, Ear Science Institute Australia, Queen Elizabeth II Medical Centre, Nedlands, Perth, WA 6009, Australia
3
Fiona Stanley Hospital, Murdoch, WA 6150, Australia
4
Curtin Medical School & Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Bentley, Perth, WA 6102, Australia
5
Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Clinical Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Novi Sad, 21101 Novi Sad, Serbia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Dr Hani Al-Salami, BPharm, PGDipPharm, PhD-Pharmacy; Associate Professor of Hearing Therapeutics, Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Curtin University & Ear Science Institute Australia, Perth (QE II Medical Centre), WA 6009, Australia.
Academic Editor: Robert V. Stahelin
Biomolecules 2022, 12(1), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom12010073
Received: 2 November 2021 / Revised: 10 December 2021 / Accepted: 12 December 2021 / Published: 4 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers in Biomacromolecules: Lipids)
Recent studies in our laboratories have shown promising effects of bile acids in ➀ drug encapsulation for oral targeted delivery (via capsule stabilization) particularly when encapsulated with Eudragit NM30D® and ➁ viable-cell encapsulation and delivery (via supporting cell viability and biological activities, postencapsulation). Accordingly, this study aimed to investigate applications of bile acid-Eudragit NM30D® capsules in viable-cell encapsulation ready for delivery. Mouse-cloned pancreatic β-cell line was cultured and cells encapsulated using bile acid-Eudragit NM30D® capsules, and capsules’ images, viability, inflammation, and bioenergetics of encapsulated cells assessed. The capsules’ thermal and chemical stability assays were also assessed to ascertain an association between capsules’ stability and cellular biological activities. Bile acid-Eudragit NM30D® capsules showed improved cell viability (e.g., F1 < F2 & F8; p < 0.05), insulin, inflammatory profile, and bioenergetics as well as thermal and chemical stability, compared with control. These effects were formulation-dependent and suggest, overall, that changes in ratios of bile acids to Eudragit NM30D® can change the microenvironment of the capsules and subsequent cellular biological activities. View Full-Text
Keywords: chenodeoxycholic acid; microencapsulation; inflammation; interleukins; cytokines chenodeoxycholic acid; microencapsulation; inflammation; interleukins; cytokines
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mooranian, A.; Ionescu, C.M.; Walker, D.; Jones, M.; Wagle, S.R.; Kovacevic, B.; Chester, J.; Foster, T.; Johnston, E.; Kuthubutheen, J.; Brown, D.; Atlas, M.D.; Mikov, M.; Al-Salami, H. Single-Cellular Biological Effects of Cholesterol-Catabolic Bile Acid-Based Nano/Micro Capsules as Anti-Inflammatory Cell Protective Systems. Biomolecules 2022, 12, 73. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom12010073

AMA Style

Mooranian A, Ionescu CM, Walker D, Jones M, Wagle SR, Kovacevic B, Chester J, Foster T, Johnston E, Kuthubutheen J, Brown D, Atlas MD, Mikov M, Al-Salami H. Single-Cellular Biological Effects of Cholesterol-Catabolic Bile Acid-Based Nano/Micro Capsules as Anti-Inflammatory Cell Protective Systems. Biomolecules. 2022; 12(1):73. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom12010073

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mooranian, Armin, Corina Mihaela Ionescu, Daniel Walker, Melissa Jones, Susbin Raj Wagle, Bozica Kovacevic, Jacqueline Chester, Thomas Foster, Edan Johnston, Jafri Kuthubutheen, Daniel Brown, Marcus D. Atlas, Momir Mikov, and Hani Al-Salami. 2022. "Single-Cellular Biological Effects of Cholesterol-Catabolic Bile Acid-Based Nano/Micro Capsules as Anti-Inflammatory Cell Protective Systems" Biomolecules 12, no. 1: 73. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom12010073

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