Although flax (Linum usitatissimum
L.) has long been used as Ayurvedic medicine, its anti-inflammatory role is still unclear. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory role of a linusorb mixture (LOMIX) recovered from flaxseed oil. Effects of LOMIX on inflammation and its mechanism of action were examined using several in vitro assays (i.e., NO production, real-time PCR analysis, luciferase-reporter assay, Western blot analysis, and kinase assay) and in vivo analysis with animal inflammation models as well as acute toxicity test. Results:
LOMIX inhibited NO production, cell shape change, and inflammatory gene expression in stimulated RAW264.7 cells through direct targeting of Src and Syk in the NF-κB pathway. In vivo study further showed that LOMIX alleviated symptoms of gastritis, colitis, and hepatitis in murine model systems. In accordance with in vitro results, the in vivo anti-inflammatory effects were mediated by inhibition of Src and Syk. LOMIX was neither cytotoxic nor did it cause acute toxicity in mice. In addition, it was found that LOB3, LOB2, and LOA2 are active components included in LOMIX, as assessed by NO assay. These in vitro and in vivo results suggest that LOMIX exerts an anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting the inflammatory responses of macrophages and ameliorating symptoms of inflammatory diseases without acute toxicity and is a promising anti-inflammatory medication for inflammatory diseases.
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