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Osmolytes: A Possible Therapeutic Molecule for Ameliorating the Neurodegeneration Caused by Protein Misfolding and Aggregation

by Neetu Kushwah 1,†, Vishal Jain 2,*,† and Dhananjay Yadav 3,*
1
Functional Genomics Unit, CSIR-institute of genomics and integrative biology, Mall road, Delhi 110007, India
2
Department of ECE, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15289, USA
3
Department of Medical Biotechnology, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contribute equally to this work.
Biomolecules 2020, 10(1), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10010132
Received: 7 November 2019 / Revised: 9 January 2020 / Accepted: 11 January 2020 / Published: 13 January 2020
Most of the neurological disorders in the brain are caused by the abnormal buildup of misfolded or aggregated proteins. Osmolytes are low molecular weight organic molecules usually built up in tissues at a quite high amount during stress or any pathological condition. These molecules help in providing stability to the aggregated proteins and protect these proteins from misfolding. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the uttermost universal neurological disorder that can be described by the deposition of neurofibrillary tangles, aggregated/misfolded protein produced by the amyloid β-protein (Aβ). Osmolytes provide stability to the folded, functional form of a protein and alter the folding balance away from aggregation and/or degradation of the protein. Moreover, they are identified as chemical chaperones. Brain osmolytes enhance the pace of Aβ aggregation, combine with the nearby water molecules more promptly, and avert the aggregation/misfolding of proteins by providing stability to them. Therefore, osmolytes can be employed as therapeutic targets and may assist in potential drug design for many neurodegenerative and other diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: osmolytes; Alzheimer’s; protein folding/misfolding; Aβ aggregation osmolytes; Alzheimer’s; protein folding/misfolding; Aβ aggregation
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Kushwah, N.; Jain, V.; Yadav, D. Osmolytes: A Possible Therapeutic Molecule for Ameliorating the Neurodegeneration Caused by Protein Misfolding and Aggregation. Biomolecules 2020, 10, 132.

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