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Metabolites 2019, 9(3), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo9030040

Maternal Dietary Docosahexaenoic Acid Alters Lipid Peroxidation Products and (n-3)/(n-6) Fatty Acid Balance in Offspring Mice

1
Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA
2
Biochemistry Department, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA
3
Departments of Radiology, Neurology and Psychological Sciences, and the Thompson Center, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA
4
Department of Nutrition and Exercise Physiology, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA
5
Department of Pathology and Anatomical Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA
6
Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 January 2019 / Revised: 24 February 2019 / Accepted: 26 February 2019 / Published: 1 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolomics and Its Applications)
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Abstract

The abundance of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the mammalian brain has generated substantial interest in the search for its roles in regulating brain functions. Our recent study with a gene/stress mouse model provided evidence to support the ability for the maternal supplement of DHA to alleviate autism-associated behavior in the offspring. DHA and arachidonic acid (ARA) are substrates of enzymatic and non-enzymatic reactions, and lipid peroxidation results in the production of 4-hydroxyhexenal (4-HHE) and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), respectively. In this study, we examine whether a maternal DHA-supplemented diet alters fatty acids (FAs), as well as lipid peroxidation products in the pup brain, heart and plasma by a targeted metabolite approach. Pups in the maternal DHA-supplemented diet group showed an increase in DHA and a concomitant decrease in ARA in all brain regions examined. However, significant increases in 4-HHE, and not 4-HNE, were found mainly in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Analysis of heart and plasma showed large increases in DHA and 4-HHE, but a significant decrease in 4-HNE levels only in plasma. Taken together, the DHA-supplemented maternal diet alters the (n-3)/(n-6) FA ratio, and increases 4-HHE levels in pup brain, heart and plasma. These effects may contribute to the beneficial effects of DHA on neurodevelopment, as well as functional changes in other body organs. View Full-Text
Keywords: diet and dietary lipids; arachidonic acid; omega-3 fatty acids; lipid peroxidation; 4-hydroxyhexenal; 4-hydroxynonenal; autism spectrum disorder; liquid chromatography; tandem mass spectrometry diet and dietary lipids; arachidonic acid; omega-3 fatty acids; lipid peroxidation; 4-hydroxyhexenal; 4-hydroxynonenal; autism spectrum disorder; liquid chromatography; tandem mass spectrometry
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Yang, B.; Li, R.; Woo, T.; Browning, J.D., Jr.; Song, H.; Gu, Z.; Cui, J.; Lee, J.C.; Fritsche, K.L.; Beversdorf, D.Q.; Sun, G.Y.; Greenlief, C.M. Maternal Dietary Docosahexaenoic Acid Alters Lipid Peroxidation Products and (n-3)/(n-6) Fatty Acid Balance in Offspring Mice. Metabolites 2019, 9, 40.

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