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Open AccessArticle

Quantification of Urinary Phenyl-γ-Valerolactones and Related Valeric Acids in Human Urine on Consumption of Apples

1
Department of Food Quality and Nutrition, Research and Innovation Centre, Fondazione Edmund Mach (FEM), 38010 San Michele all’Adige, Italy
2
Human Nutrition Unit, Department of Food & Drug, University of Parma, 43121 Parma, Italy
3
Department of Physiology and Biochemistry of Nutrition, Max Rubner-Institut, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany
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School of Advanced Studies on Food and Nutrition, and Microbiome Research Hub, University of Parma, 43121 Parma, Italy
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Human Nutrition Unit, Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Parma, 43121 Parma, Italy
6
Department of Safety and Quality of Fruit and Vegetables, Max Rubner-Institut, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany
7
Bioorganic Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Trento, 38123 Povo, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Metabolites 2019, 9(11), 254; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo9110254
Received: 13 September 2019 / Revised: 23 October 2019 / Accepted: 24 October 2019 / Published: 29 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut Metabolism of Natural Products)
Flavan-3-ols are dietary bioactive molecules that have beneficial effects on human health and reduce the risk of various diseases. Monomeric flavan-3-ols are rapidly absorbed in the small intestine and released in the blood stream as phase II conjugates. Polymeric flavan-3-ols are extensively metabolized by colonic gut microbiota into phenyl-γ-valerolactones and their related phenylvaleric acids. These molecules are the main circulating metabolites in humans after the ingestion of flavan-3-ol rich-products; nevertheless, they have received less attention and their role is not understood yet. Here, we describe the quantification of 8 phenyl-γ-valerolactones and 3 phenylvaleric acids in the urine of 11 subjects on consumption of apples by using UHPLC-ESI-Triple Quad-MS with pure reference compounds. Phenyl-γ-valerolactones, mainly as sulfate and glucuronic acid conjugates, reached maximum excretion between 6 and 12 after apple consumption, with a decline thereafter. Significant differences were detected in the cumulative excretion rates within subjects and in the ratio of dihydroxyphenyl-γ-valerolactone sulfate to glucuronide conjugates. This work observed for the first time the presence of two distinct metabotypes with regards to the excretion of phenyl-γ-valerolactone phase II conjugates. View Full-Text
Keywords: phenyl-γ-valerolactone; phenylvaleric acid; flavan-3ols; proanthocyanidins; apples; urine; LC-MS/MS; LC-MS; metabolic phenotype phenyl-γ-valerolactone; phenylvaleric acid; flavan-3ols; proanthocyanidins; apples; urine; LC-MS/MS; LC-MS; metabolic phenotype
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Anesi, A.; Mena, P.; Bub, A.; Ulaszewska, M.; Del Rio, D.; Kulling, S.E.; Mattivi, F. Quantification of Urinary Phenyl-γ-Valerolactones and Related Valeric Acids in Human Urine on Consumption of Apples. Metabolites 2019, 9, 254.

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