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Scientia Pharmaceutica is published by MDPI from Volume 84 Issue 3 (2016). Articles in this Issue were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence. Articles are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Austrian Pharmaceutical Society (Österreichische Pharmazeutische Gesellschaft, ÖPhG).

Table of Contents

Sci. Pharm., Volume 83, Issue 4 (December 2015) , Pages 549-698

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Open AccessArticle
The Effective Synthesis of N-(Arylalkyl)-1-R-4-hydroxy-2,2-dioxo-1H-2λ6,1-benzothiazine-3-carboxamides as Promising Analgesics of a New Chemical Class
Sci. Pharm. 2015, 83(4), 549-566; https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.1506-04
Received: 14 June 2015 / Accepted: 17 July 2015 / Published: 17 July 2015
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 716 | PDF Full-text (296 KB)
Abstract
A new, effective preparative method has been proposed and the synthesis of a series of N-(arylalkyl)-1-R-4-hydroxy-2,2-dioxo-1H-2λ6,1-benzothiazine-3-car-boxamides has been carried out. It has been shown that amidation of alkyl 1-R-4-hydroxy-2,2-dioxo-1H-2λ6,1-benzothiazine-3-carboxylates with arylalkyl-amines in boiling xylene [...] Read more.
A new, effective preparative method has been proposed and the synthesis of a series of N-(arylalkyl)-1-R-4-hydroxy-2,2-dioxo-1H-2λ6,1-benzothiazine-3-car-boxamides has been carried out. It has been shown that amidation of alkyl 1-R-4-hydroxy-2,2-dioxo-1H-2λ6,1-benzothiazine-3-carboxylates with arylalkyl-amines in boiling xylene proceeds with good yield and purity to the corresponding N-(arylalkyl)-amides. However, the presence of water in the reaction mixture has been shown to cause the formation of specific impurities: N-(arylalkyl)-1-R-2,2-dioxo-1H-2λ6,1-benzothiazin-4-amines. According to the results of the pharmacological studies, powerful analgesics have been found among the substances synthesized. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Physicochemical and Microbiological Stability of Extemporaneous Sildenafil Citrate Oral Suspension
Sci. Pharm. 2015, 83(4), 659-670; https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.1505-08
Received: 13 May 2015 / Accepted: 7 July 2015 / Published: 7 July 2015
Viewed by 730 | PDF Full-text (258 KB)
Abstract
Sildenafil is a potent and selective phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor that is effectively used in the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension. In several countries, hospital pharmacists prepare the drug in an extemporaneous liquid preparation as there are no liquid formulations available for pediatric and adult [...] Read more.
Sildenafil is a potent and selective phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor that is effectively used in the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension. In several countries, hospital pharmacists prepare the drug in an extemporaneous liquid preparation as there are no liquid formulations available for pediatric and adult uses. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stability of an extemporaneous sildenafil citrate oral suspension for 90 days, according to the ASEAN guideline on stability studies of drug products. The results showed that the preparation was a white suspension with a sweet taste. It was a viscous and weakly acidic mixture with pseudoplastic behavior. The drug content was in the range between 99.23% and 102.23%, and the microbial examination met the general requirements throughout the study period. Therefore, the extemporaneously compounded sildenafil suspensions were physically, chemically, and microbiologically stable for at least 90 days when stored at 30° and 40°C. Furthermore, the in-use stability study showed that the preparations had acceptable attributes at least 14 days after the first-time use. This might provide an alternative option when the commercial suspension is unavailable. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Characterization of Oxidative Degradation Product of Darunavir by LC-MS/MS
Sci. Pharm. 2015, 83(4), 623-633; https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.1505-10
Received: 15 May 2015 / Accepted: 30 June 2015 / Published: 30 June 2015
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 701 | PDF Full-text (145 KB)
Abstract
A rapid, selective, and reliable LC-MSn method has been developed and validated for the isolation and structural characterization of the degradation product of darunavir (DRV). DRV, an HIV-1 protease inhibitor, was subjected to intrinsic oxidative stress conditions using 30% hydrogen peroxide and [...] Read more.
A rapid, selective, and reliable LC-MSn method has been developed and validated for the isolation and structural characterization of the degradation product of darunavir (DRV). DRV, an HIV-1 protease inhibitor, was subjected to intrinsic oxidative stress conditions using 30% hydrogen peroxide and the degradation profile was studied. The oxidative degradation of DRV resulted in one degradation product. The unknown degradation product was separated on a Hibar Purospher C18 (250 mm × 4.6 mm; 5 µm) column by using 0.01 M ammonium formate (pH 3.0) and acetonitrile as mobile phase in the ratio of 50:50, v/v. The eluents were monitored at 263 nm using a UV detector. The isolated degradation product was characterized by UPLC-Q-TOF and its fragmentation pathway was proposed. The proposed structure of the degradation product was confirmed by HRMS analysis. The developed stability-indicating LC method was validated with respect to accuracy, precision, specificity/selectivity, and linearity. No prior reports were found in the literature about the oxidative degradation behavior of DRV. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Host-Guest Inclusion Complexes between Amlodipine Enantiomers in Biphasic Recognition Chiral Extraction System using Tartaric Acid and β-Cyclodextrin Derivatives as Positive Confirmation Using of their Enantioselective Extraction
Sci. Pharm. 2015, 83(4), 683-698; https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.1501-15
Received: 28 January 2015 / Accepted: 22 June 2015 / Published: 22 June 2015
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 593 | PDF Full-text (422 KB)
Abstract
The current work reports an extended theoretical study from our previous experimental work for the enantioselective extraction of amlodipine enantiomers in a biphasic recognition chiral extraction system (BRCES) consisting of hydrophobic D-diisopropyl tartrate dissolved in organic phase (n-decanol) and hydrophilic hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin [...] Read more.
The current work reports an extended theoretical study from our previous experimental work for the enantioselective extraction of amlodipine enantiomers in a biphasic recognition chiral extraction system (BRCES) consisting of hydrophobic D-diisopropyl tartrate dissolved in organic phase (n-decanol) and hydrophilic hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) in aqueous phase (acetate buffer) which preferentially recognize the R-enantiomer and S-enantiomer, respectively. The calculations were simulated using a semi-empirical PM3 method as a part of the Gaussian09 software package and were used to optimize the structures of the hosts, guests, and host-guest complexes in the gas phase without any restrictions. It was found that HP-β-CD has the strongest recognition ability among the three β-CD derivatives studied, namely HP-β-CD, hydroxyethyl-β-cyclodextrin (HE-β-CD), and methylated-β-cyclodextrin (Me-β-CD), due to the large interaction energies (Ecomp = -14.3025 kcal/ mol), while D-diisopropyl tartrate has the strongest ability among the four tartaric acid derivatives studied namely; L-diisopropyl tartrate, D-diisopropyl tartrate, L-diethyl tartrate, and D-diethyl tartrate (Ecomp = -5.9964 kcal/ mol). The computational calculations for the enantioselective partitioning of amlodipine enantiomers rationalized the reasons for the different behaviors for this extraction. The present theoretical results may be informative to scientists who are devoting themselves to developing models for their experimental parts or for enhancing the hydrophobic drug solubility in drug delivery systems. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Simultaneous Estimation of Hydrochlorothiazide, Hydralazine Hydrochloride, and Reserpine Using PCA, NAS, and NAS-PCA
Sci. Pharm. 2015, 83(4), 599-610; https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.1505-03
Received: 5 May 2015 / Accepted: 22 June 2015 / Published: 22 June 2015
Viewed by 701 | PDF Full-text (494 KB)
Abstract
In this study, new and feasible UV-visible spectrophotometric and multivariate spectrophotometric methods were described for the simultaneous determination of hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ), hydralazine hydrochloride (H.HCl), and reserpine (RES) in combined pharmaceutical tablets. Methanol was used as a solvent for analysis and the whole UV [...] Read more.
In this study, new and feasible UV-visible spectrophotometric and multivariate spectrophotometric methods were described for the simultaneous determination of hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ), hydralazine hydrochloride (H.HCl), and reserpine (RES) in combined pharmaceutical tablets. Methanol was used as a solvent for analysis and the whole UV region was scanned from 200-400 nm. The resolution was obtained by using multivariate methods such as the net analyte signal method (NAS), principal component analysis (PCA), and net analyte signal-principal component analysis (NAS-PCA) applied to the UV spectra of the mixture. The results obtained from all of the three methods were compared. NAS-PCA showed a lot of resolved data as compared to NAS and PCA. Thus, the NAS-PCA technique is a combination of NAS and PCA methods which is advantageous to obtain the information from overlapping results. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Effects of Methyl Jasmonate on Acute Stress Responses in Mice Subjected to Forced Swim and Anoxic Tests
Sci. Pharm. 2015, 83(4), 635-644; https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.1504-04
Received: 7 April 2015 / Accepted: 11 June 2015 / Published: 11 June 2015
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 520 | PDF Full-text (129 KB)
Abstract
Methyl jasmonate (MJ) is an anti-stress hormone released by plants in response to external stressors and aids adaptation to stress. In this study, we evaluated the anti-stress activity of MJ using the forced swim endurance test (FSET) and anoxic tolerance test in mice. [...] Read more.
Methyl jasmonate (MJ) is an anti-stress hormone released by plants in response to external stressors and aids adaptation to stress. In this study, we evaluated the anti-stress activity of MJ using the forced swim endurance test (FSET) and anoxic tolerance test in mice. Male Swiss mice were given MJ (25-100 mg/kg, i.p) 30 min before the FSET and anoxic test were carried out. The first occurrence of immobility, duration of immobility, time spent in active swimming, and latency to exhaustion were assessed in the FSET. The onset to anoxic convulsion was measured in the anoxic tolerance test. MJ significantly (p < 0.05) delayed the first occurrence of immobility and shortened the period of immobility, which indicates anti-stress property. MJ also increased the time spent in active swimming and prolonged the latency to exhaustion, which further suggests anti-stress activity. In addition, it also exhibited anti-stress property as evidenced by prolonged latency to first appearance of anoxic convulsions. The results of this study suggest that MJ demonstrated anti-stress activity and may be useful as an energizer in times of body weakness or exhaustion. Although more studies are necessary before concluding on how MJ exerts its anti-stress activity, the present data suggest an action similar to adaptogens in boosting energy and resilience in the face of stress. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Formulation and Evaluation of Controlled Release Floating Microballoons of Stavudine
Sci. Pharm. 2015, 83(4), 671-682; https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.1501-07
Received: 14 January 2015 / Accepted: 9 June 2015 / Published: 9 June 2015
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 579 | PDF Full-text (499 KB)
Abstract
The aim of this study was to formulate and evaluate stavudine floating microballoons for controlled drug release. Initially, the drug-loaded low-density granular pellets were prepared with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose E5 grade and by using isopropyl alcohol as a granulating fluid. Further, the low-density granular [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to formulate and evaluate stavudine floating microballoons for controlled drug release. Initially, the drug-loaded low-density granular pellets were prepared with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose E5 grade and by using isopropyl alcohol as a granulating fluid. Further, the low-density granular pellets were subjected to microencapsulation by an emulsion evaporation technique using ethyl cellulose 7 cps and Eudragit S 100 as coating polymers and 1% w/v polyethylene glycol 400 as aqueous phase. The prepared microballoons were characterized for their particle size analysis, angle of repose, and compressibility index. The in vitro release studies were performed in 0.1 N HCl as medium. The prepared microballoons were free-flowing and spherical in shape. From all the formulations, F5E and F5F can be considered as promising controlled release floating microballoons of stavudine providing first-order release over a period of 12 hours, with a minimum floating lag time of 1 minute. It was found that the ratio of the drug & polymer, stirring speed, and concentration of surfactant were the most significant variables which influenced the size of the stavudine microballoons under the applied experimental conditions. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Pharmacokinetic Parameters Determination and In VitroIn Vivo Correlation of Ileocolonic-Targeted pH-Responsive Coated Mini-Tablets of Naproxen
Sci. Pharm. 2015, 83(4), 645-658; https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.1503-16
Received: 24 March 2015 / Accepted: 2 June 2015 / Published: 2 June 2015
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 596 | PDF Full-text (258 KB)
Abstract
This research work aims to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters and in vitro-in vivo correlation of the selected ileocolonic-targeted coated mini-tablet filled capsule formulation of naproxen. The pure suspension and coated mini-tablet filled capsule formulation of naproxen were administered to adult albino rabbits through [...] Read more.
This research work aims to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters and in vitro-in vivo correlation of the selected ileocolonic-targeted coated mini-tablet filled capsule formulation of naproxen. The pure suspension and coated mini-tablet filled capsule formulation of naproxen were administered to adult albino rabbits through the oral route. The samples were analyzed for naproxen by an HPLC method. For the pure drug suspension, the peak plasma concentration was found as 8.499±0.029 μg/ml at 1.139±0.010 hours and the half-life was found to be 9.459±0.387 hours, whereas for the formulation the peak plasma concentration was found as 6.814±0.037 μg/ml at 8.042±0.069 hours and the half-life was found to be 19.657±0.359 hours. This decreased the peak plasma concentration at a delayed time and increased the half-life of the capsule formulation in comparison with the pure drug suspension which showed that naproxen was only targeted to the ileocolonic region. A significant in vitro-in vivo correlation (i.e. R(2)=0.9901) was also obtained. Thus, the results of these findings suggest that naproxen formulated as coated mini-tablets can be suitable for targeted ileocolonic drug delivery. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Development of an Ion Chromatography Method for Analysis of Organic Anions (Fumarate, Oxalate, Succinate, and Tartrate) in Single Chromatographic Conditions
Sci. Pharm. 2015, 83(4), 611-622; https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.1503-15
Received: 24 March 2015 / Accepted: 29 May 2015 / Published: 29 May 2015
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 768 | PDF Full-text (204 KB)
Abstract
A single organic counterion analysis method was developed by using an ion chromatography separation technique and conductivity detector. This allows the rapid characterization of an API to support clinical studies and to fulfil the regulatory requirements for the quantitation of fumarate, oxalate, succinate, [...] Read more.
A single organic counterion analysis method was developed by using an ion chromatography separation technique and conductivity detector. This allows the rapid characterization of an API to support clinical studies and to fulfil the regulatory requirements for the quantitation of fumarate, oxalate, succinate, and tartrate counterions in active pharmaceutical ingredients (quetiapine fumarate, escitalopram oxalate, sumatriptan succinate, and tolterodine tartrate). The method was developed by using the Metrohm Metrosep A Supp 1 (250 × 4.0 mm, 5.0 µm particle size) column with a mobile phase containing an isocratic mixture of solution A: 7.5 mM sodium carbonate and 2.0 mM sodium bicarbonate in Milli-Q water and solution B: acetonitrile. The flow rate was set at 1.0 mL/min and the run time was 25 minutes. The developed method was validated as per ICH guidelines, and the method parameters were chosen to ensure the spontaneous quantitation of all four anions. The method was validated for all four anions to demonstrate the applicability of this method to common anions present in various APIs. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Development and Validation of a Stability-Indicating RP-UPLC Method for the Estimation of Impurities in Cinacalcet Hydrochloride API and its Formulation
Sci. Pharm. 2015, 83(4), 583-598; https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.1502-06
Received: 25 February 2015 / Accepted: 16 April 2015 / Published: 16 April 2015
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 667 | PDF Full-text (327 KB)
Abstract
A sensitive, stability-indicating, gradient reversed-phase ultra-performance liquid chromatography method has been developed for the quantitative estimation of cinacalcet hydrochloride impurities in active pharmaceutical ingredients and pharmaceutical formulations. Efficient chromatographic separation was achieved on an Acquity BEH Shield RP18, 100 × 2.1 mm, 1.7 [...] Read more.
A sensitive, stability-indicating, gradient reversed-phase ultra-performance liquid chromatography method has been developed for the quantitative estimation of cinacalcet hydrochloride impurities in active pharmaceutical ingredients and pharmaceutical formulations. Efficient chromatographic separation was achieved on an Acquity BEH Shield RP18, 100 × 2.1 mm, 1.7 µm column with the mobile phase containing pH 6.6 phosphate buffer and acetonitrile. The flow rate of the mobile phase was 0.3 mL min-1 with a column temperature of 35°C and detection wavelength at 223 nm. The relative response factor values of (+)-R-1-(1-Naphthyl)ethylamine, regioisomer, diastereomer isomer-1, and diastereomer isomer-2 were 1.79, 0.99, 0.89, and 0.88, respectively. The cinacalcet hydrochloride formulation sample was subjected to the stress conditions of acid, base, oxidative, hydrolytic, thermal, humidity, and photolytic degradation. Cinacalcet hydrochloride was found to degrade significantly under the peroxide stress conditions. The degradation products were well-resolved from cinacalcet hydrochloride and its impurities. The peak purity test results confirmed that the cinacalcet hydrochloride peak was homogenous in all stress samples and the mass balance was found to be more than 96%, thus proving the stability-indicating power of the method. The developed method was validated according to ICH guidelines. Full article
Open AccessArticle
A Novel, Rapid, and Validated Stability-Indicating UPLC Method for the Estimation of Drotaverine Hydrochloride and Ibuprofen Impurities in Oral Solid Dosage Form
Sci. Pharm. 2015, 83(4), 567-581; https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.1503-02
Received: 1 March 2015 / Accepted: 13 April 2015 / Published: 13 April 2015
Viewed by 690 | PDF Full-text (316 KB)
Abstract
A novel, stability-indicating, reversed-phase ultra-performance liquid chromatographic (RP-UPLC) method was developed for the determination of pure drotaverine hydrochloride and ibuprofen in the presence of their impurities and degradation products. The method was developed using a Waters UPLC BEH C18, 100 × 2.1 mm, [...] Read more.
A novel, stability-indicating, reversed-phase ultra-performance liquid chromatographic (RP-UPLC) method was developed for the determination of pure drotaverine hydrochloride and ibuprofen in the presence of their impurities and degradation products. The method was developed using a Waters UPLC BEH C18, 100 × 2.1 mm, 1.7 µm column with a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min and detector wavelength at 210 nm. The mobile phase consisted of potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate buffer and acetonitrile. Drotaverine hydrochloride and ibuprofen were subjected to the stress conditions of oxidative, acid, base, photolytic, and thermal degradation. Degradation products resulting from the stress studies were well-resolved, thus confirming the test method as stability-indicating. Validation of the method was carried out as per International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. Full article
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