Effects of Garlic on Cytochromes P450 2C9- and 3A4-Mediated Drug Metabolism in Human Hepatocytes
AbstractSeveral reports suggest garlic supplements may inhibit the metabolism of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C9 and CYP3A4 substrates, such as warfarin and saquinavir. To characterize the effects of garlic extract on CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 enzyme activity immortalized human hepatocytes (Fa2N-4 cells) were exposed to garlic extract (0–200 μg/mL). CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 enzyme activities were evaluated in parallel with enzymatic activities, expression of respective RNA transcripts was also assessed. Exposure to increasing concentrations of garlic extract led to progressive reduction in Fa2N-4 CYP2C9 activity as detected by diclofenac hydroxylation. CYP2C9 mRNA expression also revealed a concentration-dependent reduction. Greater than 90% reduction in CYP2C9 activity was observed following four days of exposure to 50 μg/mL garlic extract. In contrast, exposure to garlic extract had no effect on the CYP3A4 enzymatic activity or RNA transcript concentration in Fa2N-4. Therefore, suppression of CYP2C9 expression and activity is a heretofore unrecognized mechanism by which garlic extract may modulate CYP activity. Exposure of hepatocytes to garlic extract may reduce the expression and activity of CYP2C9 with no detectible effects on CYP3A4.
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HO, B.E.; SHEN, D.D.; MCCUNE, J.S.; BUI, T.; RISLER, L.; YANG, Z.; HO, R.J.Y. Effects of Garlic on Cytochromes P450 2C9- and 3A4-Mediated Drug Metabolism in Human Hepatocytes. Sci. Pharm. 2010, 78, 473-482.
HO BE, SHEN DD, MCCUNE JS, BUI T, RISLER L, YANG Z, HO RJY. Effects of Garlic on Cytochromes P450 2C9- and 3A4-Mediated Drug Metabolism in Human Hepatocytes. Scientia Pharmaceutica. 2010; 78(3):473-482.Chicago/Turabian Style
HO, Beatrice E.; SHEN, Danny D.; MCCUNE, Jeannine S.; BUI, Tot; RISLER, Linda; YANG, Ziping; HO, Rodney J.Y. 2010. "Effects of Garlic on Cytochromes P450 2C9- and 3A4-Mediated Drug Metabolism in Human Hepatocytes." Sci. Pharm. 78, no. 3: 473-482.