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Scientia Pharmaceutica is published by MDPI from Volume 84 Issue 3 (2016). Articles in this Issue were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence. Articles are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Austrian Pharmaceutical Society (Österreichische Pharmazeutische Gesellschaft, ÖPhG).

Table of Contents

Sci. Pharm., Volume 78, Issue 2 (June 2010) , Pages 133-396

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Open AccessEditorial
Scientia Pharmaceutica, Autorenhinweise 2010
Sci. Pharm. 2010, 78(2), 383-396; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm.aut-10-02 - 17 May 2010
Viewed by 400
Abstract
Die Zeitschrift Scientia Pharmaceutica (www.scipharm.at) erscheint vierteljährlich jeweils am Quartalsende und ist ein Medium zur Publikation von Originalarbeiten, Kurzmitteilungen und ausgewählten Übersichtsarbeiten aus allen wissenschaftlichen Disziplinen der Pharmazie und angrenzenden Gebieten sowie der pharmazeutischen Praxis. [...]
Full article
Open AccessBook Review
"The Cannabinoid Receptors"
Sci. Pharm. 2010, 78(2), 382; https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.br-10-02 - 17 May 2010
Viewed by 351
Open AccessBook Review
"Pharmakognosie – Phytopharmazie"
Sci. Pharm. 2010, 78(2), 381; https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.br-10-01 - 17 May 2010
Viewed by 403
Open AccessArticle
Preparation and In Vitro/In Vivo Characterization of Porous Sublingual Tablets Containing Ternary Kneaded Solid System of Vinpocetine with β-Cyclodextrin and Hydroxy Acid
Sci. Pharm. 2010, 78(2), 363-380; https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.0912-04 - 17 May 2010
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 551
Abstract
The demand for sublingual tablets has been growing during the previous decades especially for drugs with extensive hepatic first-pass metabolism. Vinpocetine, a widely used neurotropic agent, has low oral bioavailability due to its poor aqueous solubility and marked first-pass metabolism. Accordingly, the aim [...] Read more.
The demand for sublingual tablets has been growing during the previous decades especially for drugs with extensive hepatic first-pass metabolism. Vinpocetine, a widely used neurotropic agent, has low oral bioavailability due to its poor aqueous solubility and marked first-pass metabolism. Accordingly, the aim of this work was to develop tablets for the sublingual delivery of vinpocetine. Initially, the feasibility of improving vinpocetine’s poor aqueous solubility by preparing kneaded solid systems of the drug with β-Cyclodextrin and hydroxy acids (citric acid and tartaric acid) was assessed. The solid system with improved solubility and dissolution properties was incorporated into porous tablets that rapidly disintegrate permitting fast release of vinpocetine into the sublingual cavity. The pores were induced into these tablets by directly compressing the tablets’ excipients with a sublimable material, either camphor or menthol, which was eventually sublimated leaving pores. The obtained results demonstrated that the tablets prepared using camphor attained sufficient mechanical strength for practical use together with rapid disintegration and dissolution. In vivo absorption study performed in rabbits indicated that the sublingual administration of the proposed porous tablets containing vinpocetine solid system with β-Cyclodextrin and tartaric acid could be useful for therapeutic application. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Antidepressant/Anxiolytic and Anti-Nociceptive Effects of Novel 2-Substituted 1,4-Benzodiazepine-2-ones
Sci. Pharm. 2010, 78(2), 155-170; https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.1004-12 - 17 May 2010
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 586
Abstract
Oxazepam (4a) has been used as overall starting material in the synthesis of novel 2-substituted 1,4-benzodiazepines. By reacting Oxazepam 4a with commercially available hydrazines, hydrazides, semicarbazide, aminoguanidine and N,N-dimethylamino aniline in ethanol under acetic conditions, a series of [...] Read more.
Oxazepam (4a) has been used as overall starting material in the synthesis of novel 2-substituted 1,4-benzodiazepines. By reacting Oxazepam 4a with commercially available hydrazines, hydrazides, semicarbazide, aminoguanidine and N,N-dimethylamino aniline in ethanol under acetic conditions, a series of diazenyl-1,4-benzodiazepines 5a–5i and 2-amino- 1,4-benzodiazepine 5k were obtained in good yields. These novel compounds served as new chemical entities (NCE) for testing in mice. The diazo-benzodiazepine 5d has shown a promising antidepressant effect in initial experiments in vivo at a dose of 5 mg/kg. The highly coloured 2-aminobenzodiazepine derivative 5k showed over a dose range from 5–50 mg/kg an analgesic effect in mice. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Simultaneous Determination of Different Polyamines and their Mono-Acetylated Derivatives in Gastric Tissue by HPLC with Post-Column Derivatization
Sci. Pharm. 2010, 78(2), 249-258; https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.1001-02 - 05 May 2010
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 482
Abstract
A simple and highly sensitive procedure is described enabling the simultaneous determination of biogenic polyamines (PAs) and their related monoacetyl derivatives in stomach tissue. The method is based on HPLC using octane sulfonate as an ion-pairing agent employed in acetate buffers at pH [...] Read more.
A simple and highly sensitive procedure is described enabling the simultaneous determination of biogenic polyamines (PAs) and their related monoacetyl derivatives in stomach tissue. The method is based on HPLC using octane sulfonate as an ion-pairing agent employed in acetate buffers at pH 4.5. The application is accompanied with fluorescence detection followed by post-column derivatization with o-phthaldialdehyde at room temperature (20±0.5°C). N1- and N8-acetylspermidines (ASPD) can be determined with this method in the same run without performing any special procedures or pre-purification in concentrations exceeding 8.5 pmoles. The variability in reproducibility of the day-today precision and duplicate determination, and simultaneous determination of standard mixture and biological samples were found < 2%. The mean (± s.e.mean) retention times (n=12) for putrescine (Put), N1-ASPD, N8-ASPD, spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) are 8.97±0.025; 17.64±0.063; 18.99±0.133; 28.20±0.070 and 39.81±0.098 min, respectively. The method was applied to determine PAs and specifically N1- and N8-ASPD in glandular part of stomach tissue of fasting rats (STFR) without any interference with endogenous aminoacids, histamine, and other reactive moieties. PAs and both mono-ASPD have been successfully determined in the STFR and the values are as follows: Put 37.2±10.1; N1-ASPD 5.88±0.48; N8-ASPD 4.43±0.94; Spd 750.7±22.7 and Spm 618.2±37.4 nmole/g of wet tissue. Information on gastric tissue polyamines and their acetylated derivatives may be useful in understanding the mechanism of drugs or agents that play some part in gastric ulcer production or its repair mechanisms. Full article
Open AccessArticle
3D-QSAR Design of New Escitalopram Derivatives for the Treatment of Major Depressive Disorders
Sci. Pharm. 2010, 78(2), 233-248; https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.0912-22 - 05 May 2010
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 526
Abstract
Antidepressants are psychiatric agents used for the treatment of different types of depression being at present amongst the most commonly prescribed drug, while their effectiveness and adverse effects are the subject of many studies and competing claims. Having studied five QSAR models predicting [...] Read more.
Antidepressants are psychiatric agents used for the treatment of different types of depression being at present amongst the most commonly prescribed drug, while their effectiveness and adverse effects are the subject of many studies and competing claims. Having studied five QSAR models predicting the biological activities of 18 antidepressants, already approved for clinical treatment, in interaction with the serotonin transporter (SERT), we attempted to establish the membrane ions’ contributions (sodium, potassium, chlorine and calcium) supplied by donor/acceptor hydrogen bond character and electrostatic field to the antidepressant activity. Significant cross-validated correlation q2 (0.5–0.6) and the fitted correlation r2 (0.7–0.82) coefficients were obtained indicating that the models can predict the antidepressant activity of compounds. Moreover, considering the contribution of membrane ions (sodium, potassium and calcium) and hydrogen bond donor character, we have proposed a library of 24 new escitalopram structures, some of them probably with significantly improved antidepressant activity in comparison with the parent compound. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Cyclosporine A-Nanosuspension: Formulation, Characterization and In Vivo Comparison with a Marketed Formulation
Sci. Pharm. 2010, 78(2), 345-362; https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.0908-12 - 26 Apr 2010
Cited by 34 | Viewed by 696
Abstract
Cyclosporine A-nanosuspensions were prepared using zirconium oxide beads as a milling media, Poloxamer 407 as a stabilizer and distilled water as an aqueous medium using the Pearl Milling technique. The optimized formulation was characterized in terms of particle size distribution, surface morphology, drug-surfactant [...] Read more.
Cyclosporine A-nanosuspensions were prepared using zirconium oxide beads as a milling media, Poloxamer 407 as a stabilizer and distilled water as an aqueous medium using the Pearl Milling technique. The optimized formulation was characterized in terms of particle size distribution, surface morphology, drug-surfactant interaction, drug content, saturation solubility, osmolarity, and stability. The nanoparticles consisting of Poloxamer-bound cyclosporin A with a mean diameter of 213 nm revealed a spherical shape and 5.69 fold increased saturation solubility as compared to the parent drug. The formulation was found to be iso-osmolar with blood and stable up to 3 months at 2–8°C. In-vivo studies were carried out in albino rats and the pharmacokinetic parameters were compared with a marketed formulation, which indicated better results of the prepared formulation than the marketed one. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Traditional Medicine in the Pristine Village of Prokoško Lake on Vranica Mountain, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Sci. Pharm. 2010, 78(2), 275-290; https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.1003-06 - 26 Apr 2010
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 971
Abstract
The results of an ethnobotanical study conducted in the pristine village of Prokoško Lake (Vranica Mountain, Bosnia and Herzegovina) in summer 2007 is presented. Informal interviews involving 12 informants known as “traditional healers” provided data from 43 plants used in 82 prescriptions. The [...] Read more.
The results of an ethnobotanical study conducted in the pristine village of Prokoško Lake (Vranica Mountain, Bosnia and Herzegovina) in summer 2007 is presented. Informal interviews involving 12 informants known as “traditional healers” provided data from 43 plants used in 82 prescriptions. The applied plants were used for a broad spectrum of indications. The most frequent were gastro-intestinal tract ailments, blood system disorders, skin ailments, respiratory tract ailments and urinary-genital tract ailments. The most frequent preparation was an infusion. Other often used preparations were ointments or balms and decocts. The special Bosnian balms known as “mehlems” were prepared from freshly chopped or freshly pressed herbal parts of various plant species. Warmed resins from Abies or Picea species, raw cow or pig lard, olive oil and honey served as basis. The traditional doctors, who usually worked as a team, enjoyed such a good reputation that people from all over the country were visiting in search of alternative ways to cure their ailments and diseases. The practical techniques applied by the healers and some of their attitudes and values are reported. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of 3-(1,3,4-Oxadiazol-2-yl)quinazolin-4(3H)-ones
Sci. Pharm. 2010, 78(2), 171-194; https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.0912-16 - 26 Apr 2010
Cited by 36 | Viewed by 655
Abstract
In attempt to find new pharmacologically active molecules, we report here the synthesis and in vitro antimicrobial activity of various 3-(1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)- quinazolin-4(3H)-ones. The antimicrobial activity of title compounds were examined against two gram positive bacteria (S. aureus, S. pyogenes [...] Read more.
In attempt to find new pharmacologically active molecules, we report here the synthesis and in vitro antimicrobial activity of various 3-(1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)- quinazolin-4(3H)-ones. The antimicrobial activity of title compounds were examined against two gram positive bacteria (S. aureus, S. pyogenes), two gram negative bacteria (E. coli, P. aeruginosa) and three fungi (C. albicans, A. niger, A. clavatus) using the broth microdilution method. Some derivatives bearing a bromo or iodo group exhibited very good antimicrobial activity. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Liquisolid Systems to Improve the Dissolution of Furosemide
Sci. Pharm. 2010, 78(2), 325-344; https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.0912-23 - 23 Apr 2010
Cited by 37 | Viewed by 808
Abstract
A liquisolid system has the ability to improve the dissolution properties of poorly water soluble drugs. Liquisolid compacts are flowing and compactable powdered forms of liquid medications. The aim of this study was to enhance the in vitro dissolution properties of the practically [...] Read more.
A liquisolid system has the ability to improve the dissolution properties of poorly water soluble drugs. Liquisolid compacts are flowing and compactable powdered forms of liquid medications. The aim of this study was to enhance the in vitro dissolution properties of the practically water insoluble loop diuretic furosemide, by utilising liquisolid technique. Several liquisolid tablets were prepared using microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel® pH-101) and fumed silica (Cab-O-Sil® M-5) as the carrier and coating materials, respectively. Polyoxyethylene- polyoxypropylene-polyoxyethylene block copolymer (Synperonic® PE/L 81); 1,2,3-propanetriol, homopolymer, (9Z)-9-octadecenoate (Caprol® PGE-860) and polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400) were used as non- volatile water-miscible liquid vehicles. The liquid loading factors for such liquid vehicles were calculated to obtain the optimum amounts of carrier and coating materials necessary to produce acceptable flowing and compactible powder admixtures viable to produce compacts. The ratio of carrier to coating material was kept constant in all formulations at 20 to 1. The formulated liquisolid tablets were evaluated for post compaction parameters such as weight variation, hardness, drug content uniformity, percentage friability and disintegration time. The in-vitro release characteristics of the drug from tablets formulated by direct compression (as reference) and liquisolid technique, were studied in two different dissolution media. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier- Transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were performed.The results showed that all formulations exhibited higher percentage of drug dissolved in water (pH 6.4–6.6) compared to that at acidic medium (pH 1.2). Liquisolid compacts containing Synperonic® PE/L 81 demonstrated higher release rate at the different pH values. Formulations with PEG 400 displayed lower drug release rate, compared to conventional and liquisolid tablets. DSC and FT-IR indicated a possible interaction between furosemide and tablet excipients that could explain the dissolution results. Caprol® PGE-860, as a liquid vehicle, failed to produce furosemide liquisolid compacts. Full article
Open AccessReview
Oleuropein in Olive and its Pharmacological Effects
Sci. Pharm. 2010, 78(2), 133-154; https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.0912-18 - 23 Apr 2010
Cited by 240 | Viewed by 4545
Abstract
Olive from Olea europaea is native to the Mediterranean region and, both the oil and the fruit are some of the main components of the Mediterranean diet. The main active constituents of olive oil include oleic acid, phenolic constituents, and squalene. The main [...] Read more.
Olive from Olea europaea is native to the Mediterranean region and, both the oil and the fruit are some of the main components of the Mediterranean diet. The main active constituents of olive oil include oleic acid, phenolic constituents, and squalene. The main phenolic compounds, hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein, give extra-virgin olive oil its bitter, pungent taste. The present review focuses on recent works that have analyzed the relationship between the major phenolic compound oleuropein and its pharmacological activities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic, anti-cancer activities, antimicrobial activity, antiviral activity, hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic effect. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Formulation Optimization of Hydrodynamically Balanced Oral Controlled Release Bioadhesive Tablets of Tramadol Hydrochloride
Sci. Pharm. 2010, 78(2), 303-324; https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.1001-04 - 18 Apr 2010
Cited by 32 | Viewed by 644
Abstract
The directly compressible floating-bioadhesive tablets of tramadol were formulated using varying amounts Carbopol 971P (CP) and hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC), along with other requisite excipients. In vitro drug release profile, floatational characteristics and ex vivo bioadhesive strength using texture analyzer were determined, and systematically [...] Read more.
The directly compressible floating-bioadhesive tablets of tramadol were formulated using varying amounts Carbopol 971P (CP) and hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC), along with other requisite excipients. In vitro drug release profile, floatational characteristics and ex vivo bioadhesive strength using texture analyzer were determined, and systematically optimized using a 32 central composite design (CCD). The studies indicated successful formulation of gastroretentive compressed matrices with excellent controlled release, mucoadhesion and hydrodynamic balance. Comparison of the dissolution profiles of the optimized formulation, with optimal composition of CP:HPMC :: 80.0:125.0, with that of the marketed controlled release formulation other indicated analogy of drug release performance with each other. Validation of optimization study using eight confirmatory experimental runs indicated very high degree of prognostic ability of CCD with mean ± SEM of −0.06% ± 0.37. Further, the study successfully unravels the effect of the polymers on the selected response variables. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Formulation and In Vitro Evaluation of Rifampicin Loaded Porous Microspheres
Sci. Pharm. 2010, 78(2), 291-302; https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.0910-09 - 18 Apr 2010
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 551
Abstract
Rifampicin (RIF) is a major component in fixed dose combination therapy for the treatment of tuberculosis. RIF has low solubility and high permeability with high dose and hence it is classified as class II drug in Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS). RIF has poor [...] Read more.
Rifampicin (RIF) is a major component in fixed dose combination therapy for the treatment of tuberculosis. RIF has low solubility and high permeability with high dose and hence it is classified as class II drug in Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS). RIF has poor and variable bioavailability because of its poor solubility, acid decomposition and, drug and food interaction. The present investigation was aimed to develop RIF loaded porous microspheres as a controlled release dosage form. Eudragit based porous microspheres of RIF were prepared by emulsion solvent diffusion method. Prepared porous microspheres were evaluated for its entrapment efficacy, morphology, thermal behavior, crystalline nature, in-vitro drug release and stability in simulated gastric fluid. The entrapment efficacy of drug loaded microspheres was found to be in the range of 19.04–74.57%. Surface morphology revealed the porous and spherical structure of microspheres. Differential scanning calorimetric studies confirmed that formulation process altered the crystalline nature of RIF. In vitro drug release studies indicated that drug to polymer ratio of 2:1 showed more than 85% drug release over the period of 3 h. Stability studies in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) indicated that low relative decomposition of 18.5% was achieved with high drug to low polymer ratio of 1:4. The results obtained from the present investigation concluded that RIF loaded porous microspheres are suitable for developing oral controlled release dosage form of RIF that can prevent acid decomposition and provide better biopharmaceutical properties. Further more the microspheres can be evaluated for preventing the interaction with isoniazid, other drugs and foodstuffs. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Pharmacophore Elucidation and Molecular Docking Studies on 5-Phenyl- 1-(3-pyridyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxylic Acid Derivatives as COX-2 Inhibitors
Sci. Pharm. 2010, 78(2), 195-214; https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.0912-19 - 19 Mar 2010
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 724
Abstract
A set of 5-phenyl-1-(3-pyridyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxylic acid derivatives (16–32) showing anti-inflammatory activity was analyzed using a threedimensional qualitative structure-selectivity relationship (3D QSSR) method. The CatalystHipHop approach was used to generate a pharmacophore model for cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors based on a training [...] Read more.
A set of 5-phenyl-1-(3-pyridyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxylic acid derivatives (16–32) showing anti-inflammatory activity was analyzed using a threedimensional qualitative structure-selectivity relationship (3D QSSR) method. The CatalystHipHop approach was used to generate a pharmacophore model for cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors based on a training set of 15 active inhibitors (1–15). The degree of fitting of the test set compounds (16–32) to the generated hypothetical model revealed a qualitative measure of the more or less selective COX-2 inhibition of these compounds. The results indicate that most derivatives (16, 18, 20–25, and 30–32) are able to effectively satisfy the proposed pharmacophore geometry using energy accessible conformers (Econf < 20 kcal/mol). In addition, the triazole derivatives (16–32) were docked into COX-1 and COX-2 X-ray structures, using the program GOLD. Based on the docking results it is suggested that several of these novel triazole derivatives are active COX inhibitors with a significant preference for COX-2. In principle, this work presents an interesting, comprehensive approach to theoretically predict the mode of action of compounds that showed anti-inflammatory activity in an in vivo model. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of the Pharmaceutical Quality of Docetaxel Injection Using New Stability Indicating Chromatographic Methods for Assay and Impurities
Sci. Pharm. 2010, 78(2), 215-232; https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.0912-14 - 05 Mar 2010
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 1514
Abstract
New stability indicating chromatographic methods have been developed for estimation of Assay and Impurities of Docetaxel in Docetaxel injection for evaluation of pharmaceutical quality. With this method, the process related impurities and degradants are well separated from the peaks due to placebo. The [...] Read more.
New stability indicating chromatographic methods have been developed for estimation of Assay and Impurities of Docetaxel in Docetaxel injection for evaluation of pharmaceutical quality. With this method, the process related impurities and degradants are well separated from the peaks due to placebo. The relative retention times and relative response factors of the known impurities have been established. The LOQ of the known impurities and docetaxel are found to be less than 0.2 μg /ml and the recovery falls in the range of 90–110%. Peak purities demonstrated the stability indicating nature of the methods. The methods developed in the present study overcome the lacunae of the existing published methodologies in evaluation of the quality of Docetaxel injection. In essence, the present study provides an improved methodology for evaluation of the pharmaceutical quality of Docetaxel injection. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Acute Administration of Clozapine and Risperidone Altered Dopamine Metabolism More in Rat Caudate than in Nucleus Accumbens: A Dose-Response Relationship
Sci. Pharm. 2010, 78(2), 259-274; https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.0907-20 - 29 Nov 2009
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 498
Abstract
The present study compares the extrapyramidal and neurochemical effects of clozapine and risperidone in rat caudate (corpus striatum) and nucleus accumbens (ventral striatum) dose-dependently. Animals injected with clozapine (2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 mg/kg IP) or risperidone (1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 mg/kg IP) in [...] Read more.
The present study compares the extrapyramidal and neurochemical effects of clozapine and risperidone in rat caudate (corpus striatum) and nucleus accumbens (ventral striatum) dose-dependently. Animals injected with clozapine (2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 mg/kg IP) or risperidone (1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 mg/kg IP) in acute were sacrificed 1 h later to collect brain samples. Extrapyramidal side effects (EPS) in terms of locomotor activity and catalepsy were monitored in each animal after the drug or vehicle administration. Maximum cataleptic potentials were found only at high doses of clozapine (10.0 mg/kg; 60%) and risperidone (5.0 mg/kg; 100%). Neurochemical estimations were carried out by HPLC-EC. Both drugs at all doses significantly (p<0.01) increased the concentration of homovanillic acid (HVA), a metabolite of DA, in the caudate nucleus and decreased in nucleus accumbens. Levels of Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) significantly (p<0.01) increased in the caudate by clozapine administration and decreased in the nucleus accumbens by the administration of both drugs in a dose-dependent manner. 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), the predominant metabolite of serotonin significantly decreased in the caudate and nucleus accumbens in a similar fashion. Levels of tryptophan (TRP) were remained insignificant in caudate and nucleus accumbens by the injections of two drugs. In caudate, clozapine and risperidone administrations significantly (p<0.01) decreased HVA/DA ratio and increased DOPAC/DA ratio in nucleus accumbens at all doses. The findings suggest the evidence for DA/5-HT receptor interaction as an important link in the lower incidence of EPS. The possible role of serotonin1A receptors in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia is also discussed. Full article
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