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Passive Optical Networks Progress: A Tutorial

by Tomas Horvath 1,2,*,†, Petr Munster 1,2,†, Vaclav Oujezsky 1,† and Ning-Hai Bao 3,†
Department of Telecommunication, Brno University of Technology, Technicka 12, 616 00 Brno, Czech Republic
Department of Optical Networks, CESNET a.l.e., Zikova 4, 160 00 Prague, Czech Republic
School of Communication and Information Engineering, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Chongqing 400065, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Electronics 2020, 9(7), 1081;
Received: 2 June 2020 / Revised: 24 June 2020 / Accepted: 26 June 2020 / Published: 1 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Networks)
For many years, passive optical networks (PONs) have received a considerable amount of attraction regarding their potential for providing broadband connectivity to almost every citizen, especially in remote areas where fiber optics can attract people to populate regions that have been abandoned. Error-free connectivity without dropouts can offer new opportunities to communicate, earn money and enjoy cultural events. Transmission speeds are multigigabit with distances of a few tens of kilometers; these specifications were previously reserved for high-speed and long-haul backbone networks. PONs can also support a new class of applications, such as accurate time transfer or distributed fiber sensing and follow new trends in open networking. An outline of past and current standards and standards that have been proposed for the latest generation of multigigabit PONs is provided. View Full-Text
Keywords: passive optical networks; APON; BPON; GPON; XG-PON; NG-PON2 passive optical networks; APON; BPON; GPON; XG-PON; NG-PON2
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Horvath, T.; Munster, P.; Oujezsky, V.; Bao, N.-H. Passive Optical Networks Progress: A Tutorial. Electronics 2020, 9, 1081.

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