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Electronics 2019, 8(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8010029

Structure of All-Digital Frequency Synthesiser for IoT and IoV Applications

Micro and Nanoelectronics Systems Design and Research Laboratory, Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, 10257 Vilnius, Lithuania
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Received: 26 November 2018 / Revised: 14 December 2018 / Accepted: 19 December 2018 / Published: 27 December 2018
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Abstract

In recent years number of Internet of Things (IoT) services and devices is growing and Internet of Vehicles (IoV) technologies are emerging. Multiband transceiver with high performance frequency synthesisers should be used to support a multitude of existing and developing wireless standards. In this paper noise sources of an all-digital frequency synthesiser are discussed through s-domain model of frequency synthesisers, and the impact of noise induced by main blocks of synthesisers to the overall phase noise of frequency synthesisers is analysed. Requirements for time to digital converter (TDC), digitally controlled oscillator (DCO) and digital filter suitable for all-digital frequency synthesiser for IoT and IoV applications are defined. The structure of frequency synthesisers, which allows us to meet defined requirements, is presented. Its main parts are 2D Vernier TDC based on gated ring oscillators, which can achieve resolution close to 1 ps; multi core LC-tank DCO, whose tuning range is 4.3–5.4 GHz when two cores are used and phase noise is −116.4 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset from 5.44 GHz carrier; digital filter made of proportional and integral gain stages and additional infinite impulse response filter stages. Such a structure allows us to achieve a synthesiser’s in-band phase noise lower than −100 dBc/Hz, out-of-band phase noise equal to −134.0 dBc/Hz and allows us to set a synthesiser to type-I or type-II and change its order from first to sixth. View Full-Text
Keywords: CMOS; integrated circuit; frequency synthesiser; time to digital converter; digitally controlled oscillator CMOS; integrated circuit; frequency synthesiser; time to digital converter; digitally controlled oscillator
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Jurgo, M.; Navickas, R. Structure of All-Digital Frequency Synthesiser for IoT and IoV Applications. Electronics 2019, 8, 29.

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