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Electronics, Volume 7, Issue 1 (January 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Today mechanical, electronic devices such as drones and robots are becoming increasingly useful. [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Delay Bounded Multi-Source Multicast in Software-Defined Networking
Electronics 2018, 7(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7010010
Received: 21 December 2017 / Revised: 17 January 2018 / Accepted: 19 January 2018 / Published: 21 January 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1172 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Software-Defined Networking (SDN) is the next generation network architecture with exciting application prospects. The control function in SDN is decoupled from the data forwarding plane, hence it provides a new centralized architecture with flexible network resource management. Although SDN is attracting much attention
[...] Read more.
Software-Defined Networking (SDN) is the next generation network architecture with exciting application prospects. The control function in SDN is decoupled from the data forwarding plane, hence it provides a new centralized architecture with flexible network resource management. Although SDN is attracting much attention from both industry and research, its advantage over the traditional networks has not been fully utilized. Multicast is designed to deliver content to multiple destinations. The current traffic engineering in SDN focuses mainly on unicast, however, multicast can effectively reduce network resource consumption by serving multiple clients. This paper studies a novel delay-bounded multi-source multicast SDN problem, in which among the set of potential sources, we select a source to build the multicast-tree, under the constraint that the transmission delay for every destination is bounded. This problem is more difficult than the traditional Steiner minimum tree (SMT) problem, since it needs to find a source from the set of all potential sources. We model the problem as a mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) and prove its NP-Hardness. To solve the problem, a delay bounded multi-source (DBMS) scheme is proposed, which includes a DBMS algorithm to build a minimum delay cost DBMS-Forest. Through a MATLAB experiment, we demonstrate that DBMS is significantly more efficient and outperforms other existing algorithms in the literature. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Automatic EMI Filter Design for Power Electronic Converters Oriented to High Power Density
Received: 18 December 2017 / Revised: 3 January 2018 / Accepted: 16 January 2018 / Published: 18 January 2018
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Abstract
In this paper, a complete computer aided procedure based on the power density concept and aimed at the automatic design of EMI filters for power electronic converters is presented. It is rule-based, and it uses suitable databases built-up by considering information on passive
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In this paper, a complete computer aided procedure based on the power density concept and aimed at the automatic design of EMI filters for power electronic converters is presented. It is rule-based, and it uses suitable databases built-up by considering information on passive components available from commercial datasheets. The power density constraint is taken into consideration by imposing the minimization of the filter volume and/or weight; nevertheless, the system in which the automatically designed filter is included satisfies the electromagnetic compatibility standards limits. Experimental validations of the proposed procedure are presented for two real case studies, for which the performance and the size of the best filter design are compared with those related to a conventionally designed one. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
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Open AccessEditorial Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Electronics in 2017
Received: 15 January 2018 / Accepted: 15 January 2018 / Published: 15 January 2018
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Abstract
Peer review is an essential part in the publication process, ensuring that Electronics maintains high quality standards for its published papers.[...] Full article
Open AccessArticle Laboratory Experiment of Blind Adaptive Array with Subcarrier Transmission Power Assignment in Spectrum Superposing Scenarios
Received: 14 November 2017 / Revised: 8 January 2018 / Accepted: 9 January 2018 / Published: 11 January 2018
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Abstract
This paper experimentally validates the basic feasibility of our proposed blind adaptive array (BAA) with subcarrier transmission power assignment (STPA) scheme using a prototype. The proposed STPA-BAA enables spectrum superposing without any channel state information between two different wireless communication systems: employing STPA-BAA
[...] Read more.
This paper experimentally validates the basic feasibility of our proposed blind adaptive array (BAA) with subcarrier transmission power assignment (STPA) scheme using a prototype. The proposed STPA-BAA enables spectrum superposing without any channel state information between two different wireless communication systems: employing STPA-BAA to the secondary system, inter-system interference from/to the primary system can be suppressed. Exploiting the characteristics of constant modulus algorithm (CMA) and power inversion (PI), the secondary transmitter provides two levels of power density for each subcarrier: high and low levels. It enables the secondary receiver to suppress interference with almost the same level of the desired signal. It is also effective in reducing interference to the primary receiver that has no interference suppression function. This paper conducts laboratory experiments of spectrum superposition in two multicarrier systems by wired setup. Though the practical performance of STPA-BAA is limited due to the quantization level or dynamic range of the transceiver, effectiveness of the proposed scheme is confirmed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Antennas and MIMO Communications)
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Open AccessArticle Supercapacitors in Tandem with Batteries to Prolong the Range of UGV Systems
Received: 2 December 2017 / Revised: 18 December 2017 / Accepted: 4 January 2018 / Published: 10 January 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3370 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to explore a novel approach to power hybridization in relation to its effectiveness in an unmanned ground vehicle (UGV). This hybridization method is modeled after the power distribution methods found in living organisms, which utilize glycogen stores
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The purpose of this study was to explore a novel approach to power hybridization in relation to its effectiveness in an unmanned ground vehicle (UGV). This hybridization method is modeled after the power distribution methods found in living organisms, which utilize glycogen stores and adipose tissue to optimize power and energy density strengths and weaknesses. A UGV rover was constructed with an appropriate distribution of power storage elements creating separate power buffers. The primary buffer consisted of a 10 W solar panel array and a 600 F, 5.4 V supercapacitor bank, and the secondary buffer consisted of a 3.7 V 6 Ah lithium-ion battery pack. The primary buffer provided virtually limitless charge cycles with a superior power density juxtaposed with a secondary buffer that provided superior energy density and volumetric versatility. The design of this rover is presented in this paper; it was tested under manual and autonomous modes. The rover was found to be capable of effectively operating solely on the primary power buffer in high to low luminous conditions while being able to carry out basic extravehicular activities. The rover could travel roughly 22 km without any input power on a full charge of both buffers, and could smoothly switch between its own power buffers during operation, all while transmitting live first person video (FPV) and network data. The introduction of control algorithms on the onboard microcontroller unit (MCU) was also explored in both manual and autonomous configurations. The latter integrated linear regression to intelligently manage power and locomotion based on sensory data from photoresistors. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperEditorial Energy Saving in Data Centers
Received: 29 December 2017 / Revised: 4 January 2018 / Accepted: 4 January 2018 / Published: 9 January 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (136 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Globally CO2 emissions attributable to Information Technology are on par with those resulting from aviation. Recent growth in cloud service demand has elevated energy efficiency of data centers to a critical area within green computing. Cloud computing represents a backbone of IT
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Globally CO2 emissions attributable to Information Technology are on par with those resulting from aviation. Recent growth in cloud service demand has elevated energy efficiency of data centers to a critical area within green computing. Cloud computing represents a backbone of IT services and recently there has been an increase in high-definition multimedia delivery, which has placed new burdens on energy resources. Hardware innovations together with energy-efficient techniques and algorithms are key to controlling power usage in an ever-expanding IT landscape. This special issue contains a number of contributions that show that data center energy efficiency should be addressed from diverse vantage points. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Saving in Data Centers)
Open AccessArticle A Low-Cost Maximum Power Point Tracking System Based on Neural Network Inverse Model Controller
Received: 11 November 2017 / Revised: 27 December 2017 / Accepted: 30 December 2017 / Published: 4 January 2018
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Abstract
This work presents the design, modeling, and implementation of a neural network inverse model controller for tracking the maximum power point of a photovoltaic (PV) module. A nonlinear autoregressive network with exogenous inputs (NARX) was implemented in a serial-parallel architecture. The PV module
[...] Read more.
This work presents the design, modeling, and implementation of a neural network inverse model controller for tracking the maximum power point of a photovoltaic (PV) module. A nonlinear autoregressive network with exogenous inputs (NARX) was implemented in a serial-parallel architecture. The PV module mathematical modeling was developed, a buck converter was designed to operate in the continuous conduction mode with a switching frequency of 20 KHz, and the dynamic neural controller was designed using the Neural Network Toolbox from Matlab/Simulink (MathWorks, Natick, MA, USA), and it was implemented on an open-hardware Arduino Mega board. To obtain the reference signals for the NARX and determine the 65 W PV module behavior, a system made of a 0.8 W PV cell, a temperature sensor, a voltage sensor and a static neural network, was used. To evaluate performance a comparison with the P&O traditional algorithm was done in terms of response time and oscillations around the operating point. Simulation results demonstrated the superiority of neural controller over the P&O. Implementation results showed that approximately the same power is obtained with both controllers, but the P&O controller presents oscillations between 7 W and 10 W, in contrast to the inverse controller, which had oscillations between 1 W and 2 W. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Antenna Design by Means of the Fruit Fly Optimization Algorithm
Received: 14 November 2017 / Revised: 14 December 2017 / Accepted: 29 December 2017 / Published: 3 January 2018
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Abstract
In this work a heuristic optimization algorithm known as the Fruit fly Optimization Algorithm is applied to antenna design problems. The original formulation of the algorithm is presented and it is adapted to array factor and horn antenna optimization problems. Specifically, it is
[...] Read more.
In this work a heuristic optimization algorithm known as the Fruit fly Optimization Algorithm is applied to antenna design problems. The original formulation of the algorithm is presented and it is adapted to array factor and horn antenna optimization problems. Specifically, it is applied to the array factor synthesis of uniformly-fed, non-equispaced arrays and to the profile optimization of multimode horn antennas. Several numerical examples are presented and the obtained results are compared with those provided by a deterministic optimization based on a simplex method and another well-known heuristic approach, the Genetic Algorithm. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle The Impact of Antenna Height on 3D Channel: A Ray Launching Based Analysis
Received: 8 November 2017 / Revised: 28 November 2017 / Accepted: 29 December 2017 / Published: 3 January 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2977 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Three-dimensional (3D) multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) is one of the enabling technologies for next-generation mobile communication. As the elevation angle in the 3D MIMO channel model might vary against the height of the base station (BS) antenna, it should be considered within channel modeling. In
[...] Read more.
Three-dimensional (3D) multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) is one of the enabling technologies for next-generation mobile communication. As the elevation angle in the 3D MIMO channel model might vary against the height of the base station (BS) antenna, it should be considered within channel modeling. In this paper, the impact of antenna height on the channel characteristics of the 3D MIMO channel is investigated by using the intelligent ray launching algorithm (IRLA). Three typical street scenarios, i.e., the straight street, the forked road, and the crossroad, are selected as benchmarks. The joint and marginal probability density functions (PDFs) of both the elevation angle of departure (EAoD) and the elevation angle of arrival (EAoA) are obtained through simulations. Moreover, the elevation angle spread (AS) and the elevation delay spread (DS) under various antenna heights are jointly discussed. Simulation results show that the characteristics of the PDFs of EAoD will vary under different street scenarios. It is observed that in order to obtain the maximum or minimum value of the AS and the DS, the BS antenna should be deployed at half of the building height. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Collision Detection Method Using Self Interference Cancelation for Random Access Multiuser MIMO
Received: 30 November 2017 / Revised: 15 December 2017 / Accepted: 20 December 2017 / Published: 22 December 2017
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Abstract
This paper proposes an interference detection method for multiuser-multiple input multiple output (MU-MIMO) transmission, which utilizes periodical preamble signals in the frequency domain and the concept of full-duplex transmission when assuming idle antennas at the access point (AP) in MU-MIMO. In the propose
[...] Read more.
This paper proposes an interference detection method for multiuser-multiple input multiple output (MU-MIMO) transmission, which utilizes periodical preamble signals in the frequency domain and the concept of full-duplex transmission when assuming idle antennas at the access point (AP) in MU-MIMO. In the propose method, collision detection (CD) of MU-MIMO is achieved by utilizing asynchronous MU-MIMO called random access MU-MIMO. In random access MU-MIMO, several antennas that are not used for the transmission exist, due to asynchronous MU-MIMO. Hence, idle antennas at the AP can receive preamble signals while the transmit antennas at the AP transmit the preamble signals: this procedure is regarded as full-duplex transmission, which cancels the self-interference between AP antennas. The interference can be detected by subtracting the short preamble signal, which is multiplied by the estimated channel response using the received signal after the FFT processing. Moreover, we utilize dual polarization to reduce the mutual coupling between transmit and receive antennas at the AP. Through a computer simulation, it is shown that the proposed method can successfully detect collision from other user terminals (UTs) with OFDM signals when the interfering power from the interfering user terminal (IT) is greater than the noise power. In addition, the interfering power from IT at the AP and the desired user terminal (DT) is measured in an actual indoor environment, and the possibility of using the proposed method at the AP is discussed by using the measurement results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Antennas and MIMO Communications)
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